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L 60 ab. German Literature in Translation. 9 units (3-0-6). First term: “Tales of Hollywood”, German exile literature 1933–45; second term: German literature of the 19th century—Biedermeier, young Germany, realism, and naturalism. Not offered 2017–18. 

L 102 abc. Elementary French. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. The course uses French in Action, a multimedia program, and emphasizes the acquisition of fundamental skills: oral ability, comprehension, writing, and reading. Students are evaluated on the basis of quizzes and compositions (1/3), midterm and final (1/3), and class participation (1/3). The course is mainly designed for students with no previous knowledge of French. Students who have had French in secondary school or college must consult with the instructor before registering. Instructor: Orcel. 

L 103 abc. Intermediate French. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: L 102 abc or equivalent. The first two terms feature an extensive grammar review and group activities that promote self- expression. Op-Ed articles and a series of literary texts provide a basis for classroom discussion and vocabulary expansion. Several short written compositions are required. The third term is designed to further develop an active command of the language. A variety of 19th- and 20th-century short stories are discussed in class to improve comprehension and oral proficiency. Students are expected to do an oral presentation, to write four short compositions, and a final paper. Instructors: Merrill, Orcel.

L 104. French Cinema. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Offered concurrently with F 104. Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent. A critical survey of major directors, genres, and movements in French cinema. Particular attention is devoted to the development of film theory and criticism in France and their relation to film production. The course may also focus on problems of transposition from literature to cinema. The course includes screenings of films by Melies, Dulac, Clair, Renoir, Carne, Pagnol, Cocteau, Bresson, Tati, Truffaut, Godard, Resnais, Lelouch, Malle, Pialat, Rohmer, and Varda. Students are expected to write three 5-page critical papers. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as F 104, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Not offered 2017–18. 

L 105 ab. Topics in French Culture and Literature. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Offered concurrently with Hum 105 ab. L 105 a and L 105 b taught in alternate years. Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent. Part a: 20th-century French literature. Part b: Contemporary France. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 105 ab, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Instructor: Orcel. 

L 106 abc. Elementary Japanese. 9 units (4-0-5); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: Section a is required for sections b and c. Emphasis on oral-aural skills, and understanding of basic grammar. Immediate introduction of the native script – hiragana, katakana – and gradual introduction to 300 to 500 characters. Instructor: Fujio. 

L 107 abc. Intermediate Japanese. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: L 106 abc or equivalent. Continued instruction and practice in conversation, building up vocabulary, and understanding complex sentence patterns. The emphasis, however, will be on developing reading skills. Recognition of approximately 1,000 characters. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Instructor: Hirai. 

L 108 abc. Advanced Japanese. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: L 107 abc or equivalent. Developing overall language skills. Literary and newspaper readings. Technical and scientific translation. Improvement of listening and speaking ability so as to communicate with Japanese people in real situations. Recognition of the 1,850 “general-use characters. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Instructor: Hirai. 

L/F 109. Introduction to French Cinema from Its Beginning to the Present. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. This course will introduce students to the artistic style and the social, historical, and political content of French films, starting with Méliès and the Lumière brothers and working through surrealism and impressionism, 1930s poetic realism, the Occupation, the New Wave, the Cinema du look, and the contemporary cinema. The class will teach students to look at film as a medium with its own techniques and formal principles. Conducted in English. Instructor: Orcel.

L 110 abc. Elementary Spanish. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Grammar fundamentals and their use in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish. Exclusively for students with no previous knowledge of Spanish. Instructors: Arjona, Garcia.   

L 112 abc. Intermediate Spanish. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: L 110 abc or equivalent. Grammar review, vocabulary building, practice in conversation, and introduction to relevant history, literature, and culture. Literary reading and writing are emphasized in the second and third terms. Students who have studied Spanish elsewhere must consult with the instructor before registering. Instructor:  Garcia. 

L 114 abc. Spanish and Latin American Literature. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Offered concurrently with Hum 114 abc. Prerequisites: L 112 abc or equivalent. First and second terms: study of literary texts from the Spanish American and Spanish traditions, their cultural and historical relevance, covering all periods, with emphasis on contemporary authors. Third term: contemporary topics in literature and/or film of the Hispanic world. Conducted in Spanish. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 114 abc, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Instructor: Arjona. 

L 130 abc. Elementary German. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Grammar fundamentals and their use in aural comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Students who have had German in secondary school or college must consult with the instructor before registering. Instructor: Aebi. 

L 132 abc. Intermediate German. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: L 130 abc or equivalent. Reading of short stories and plays, grammar review, aural and oral drills and exercises, expansion of vocabulary, and practice in reading, writing, and conversational skills. Second and third terms will emphasize written expression, technical/ scientific translation, and literary readings. Students who have studied German elsewhere must consult with the instructor before registering. Instructor: Aebi.

L 139. Translation Theory and Practice (Chinese Historical Sources Seminar). 9 units (3-0-6); first term. This seminar will introduce students to the problems and practices of historical translation for academic purposes, with a focus on primary materials from Chinese history. Students will take responsibility for an individual translation project, participate in seminar discussions and collaborative projects to improve the translations being made, and discuss the philosophical and methodological questions at the heart of the practice of translation. Advanced proficiency in written Chinese is required. Students who write analyses (4,000 words) of the sources being translated may enroll in this class as H 139, which satisfies the advanced humanities credit. Instructor: Dykstra.

L 140 abc. German Literature. 9 units (3-0-6). Prerequisite: L 132 c or equivalent (two years of college German), or instructor’s permission. Reading and discussion of works by selected 12th–21st-century authors, current events on Internet/TV, exposure to scientific and technical writing, business communication. Viewing and discussion of German-language films. Conducted in German. Not offered 2017–18.

H/Lit 142. Perspectives on History through Russian Literature. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see History.

L/Hum 152 ab. French Literature in Translation: Classical and Modern. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. First term: French classical literature of the 17th and 18th centuries; third term: reading and discussion of works by selected 19th- and 20th-century authors. The approach is both historical and critical. Conducted in English, but students may read the French originals. Film versions of the texts studied may be included. Instructors: Merrill.

L/Hum 162. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. 9 units (3-0-6); offered by announcement. This class is an introduction to the literary masterworks of the Hispanic tradition from the 16th to the 20th centuries. Readings and discussions are in English, but students may read Spanish originals. Not offered 2017–18.

L 167 abc. Latin Literature. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: three years of high-school Latin. Major works of Latin literature, usually one per term. No work will be studied more than once in four years, and students may repeat the course for credit. Instructor: Pigman.

L 170 abc. Introduction to Chinese. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. An introductory course in standard Chinese (Mandarin) designed for students with no previous knowledge of the language. The course introduces the fundamentals of Chinese, including pronunciation, grammar, and Chinese characters, emphasizing the four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. By the end of the three-term sequence, students will have acquired knowledge of basic rules of grammar and the ability to converse, read, and write on simple topics of daily life, and will have command of more than 800 Chinese compounds and 700 characters. Instructor: Wang. 

L 171 abc. Elementary Chinese. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: placement exam results or instructor’s permission. A fast-paced course for students who have had prior exposure to the language. Students are introduced to the basic principles of written and oral communication. Emphasis will be placed on consolidating basic grammar, and developing the ability to use the language creatively in talking about oneself and in dealing with daily situations within a Chinese cultural context. Instructor: Ming. 

L 172 abc. Intermediate Chinese.  9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: L 170 abc or L 171 abc or equivalent. A course designed to meet the personal interests and future professional goals of students who have had one year of elementary modern Chinese. Students will learn new vocabulary, sentence patterns, idiomatic expressions, and proverbs, as well as insights into Chinese society, culture, and customs. Instructor: Wang.

L 173 ab. Advanced Chinese. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second terms. Prerequisite: L 172 abc or equivalent. A course designed to further develop overall language proficiency through extensive reading of selected texts representing a wide variety of styles and genres, including newspapers and magazines, visual materials, and a selection of works of major modern writers. Classes are conducted primarily in Chinese. Instructor: Ming. 

L 174. Advanced Chinese II: Topics in Chinese Literature. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Offered concurrently with Hum 174. Prerequisites: instructor’s permission. Reading and discussion of representative Chinese works from the 16th century to the present, including contemporary works from China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Conducted in Chinese. Students are expected to examine literary works in light of their sociopolitical and historical contexts. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 174, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Instructor: Ming. 

L 175. French Conversation. 6 units (3-0-3); third term. Prerequisites: L 102 abc and L 103 abc or equivalent. Intense training in oral expression, pronunciation, vocabulary, listening comprehension and fluency. The class is designed for students planning to attend Ecole Polytechnique. Discussion materials and guest lectures will focus on technical language to prepare students for their classes in math and science. Taught in French. Enrollment limited to 12. L 175 can be repeated for credit since the content is never the same (different speakers, different articles discussed in class). Instructor: Orcel

H/L 191. Perspectives on History through German Literature. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see History.