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Chemistry

Ch 1 ab. General Chemistry. 6 units; 9 units; a (3-0-3) first term; b (4-0-5) second term. Lectures and recitations dealing with the principles of chemistry. First term: Chemical bonding - electronic structure of atoms, periodic properties, ionic substances, covalent bonding, Lewis representations of molecules and ions, shapes of molecules, Lewis acids and bases, Bronsted acids and bases, hybridization and resonance, bonding in solids. Second term: Chemical dynamics - spectroscopy, thermodynamics, kinetics, chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, and introduction to organic chemistry. Graded pass/fail. Instructors: Lewis (a), Reisman, Miller (b).

Ch/APh 2. Introduction to Energy Sciences. 9 units (4-0-5); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ph 1 ab, Ma 1 ab. Energy production and transduction in biological, chemical, and nuclear reactions. Bioenergetics: energy sources and storage; components of biological energy flows: pumps, motors, and solar cells; circuitry of biological energy flows and biological energy transduction pathways. Chemistry of energy production and utilization: fossil fuel utilization and energy conversion pathways; artificial photosynthesis, solar cells, and solar energy conversion. Principles of nuclear energy production: nuclear energy decay processes, fission and fusion reactions, and reactor principles. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Satisfies the menu requirement of the Caltech core curriculum. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 3 a. Fundamental Techniques of Experimental Chemistry. 6 units (1-3-2); first, second, third terms. Introduces the basic principles and techniques of synthesis and analysis and develops the laboratory skills and precision that are fundamental to experimental chemistry. Freshmen who have gained advanced placement into Ch 41 or Ch 21, or who are enrolled in Ch 10, are encouraged to take Ch 3 a in the fall term. Freshmen who enter in academic years 2017, 2018, and 2019 must take Ch 3 a in their first nine terms of residence in order to be graded pass/fail. Freshmen entering in academic year 2020 and thereafter must take Ch 3 a in their first six terms of residence in order to be graded pass/fail. Instructor: Mendez. 

Ch 3 x. Experimental Methods in Solar Energy Conversion. 6 units (1-3-2); first, second, third terms. Introduces concepts and laboratory methods in chemistry and materials science centered on the theme of solar energy conversion and storage. Students will perform experiments involving optical spectroscopy, electrochemistry, laser spectroscopy, photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry, culminating in the construction and testing of dye-sensitized solar cells. Pass/fail grading conditions are the same as for Ch 3a above. Instructor: Mendez. 

Ch 4 ab. Synthesis and Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Compounds. 9 units (1-6-2). Prerequisites: Ch 1 (or the equivalent) and Ch 3 a or Ch 3 x. Ch 4 a is a prerequisite for Ch 4 b. Previous or concurrent enrollment in Ch 41 is strongly recommended. Introduction to methods of synthesis, separation, purification, and characterization used routinely in chemical research laboratories. Ch 4 a focuses on the synthesis and analysis of organic molecules; Ch 4 b focuses on the synthesis and analysis of inorganic and organometallic molecules. Ch 4 a, second term; Ch 4 b, third term. Instructor: Mendez.

Ch 5 ab. Advanced Techniques of Synthesis and Analysis. Ch 5 a 12 units (1-9-2), second term; Ch 5 b 12 units (1-9-2), first term. Prerequisites: Ch 4 ab. Ch 102 strongly recommended for Ch 5 b. Modern synthetic chemistry. Specific experiments may change from year to year. Experiments illustrating the multistep syntheses of natural products (Ch 5 a), coordination complexes, and organometallic complexes (Ch 5 b) will be included. Methodology will include advanced techniques of synthesis and instrumental characterization. Terms may be taken independently. Instructors: Grubbs (a), part b Not offered 2017–18.  

Ch 6 ab. Physical and Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory. 10 units (1-6-3); second, third terms. Prerequisites: Ch 1, Ch 4 ab, and Ch 21 or Ch 24 or equivalents (may be taken concurrently). Introduction to modern physical methods in chemistry and biology. Techniques include laser spectroscopy, microwave spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, FT-IR, fluorescence, scanning probe microscopies, and UHV surface methods. The two terms can be taken in any order. Instructor: Beauchamp/Weitekamp.

Ch 7. Advanced Experimental Methods in Bioorganic Chemistry. 9 units (1-6-2); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc, and Bi/Ch 110, Ch 4 ab. Enrollment by instructor’s permission. Preference will be given to students who have taken Ch 5 a or Bi 10. This advanced laboratory course will provide experience in powerful contemporary methods used in chemical biology, including polypeptide synthesis and the selective labeling and imaging of glycoproteins in cells. Experiments will address amino acid protecting group strategies, biopolymer assembly and isolation, and product characterization. A strong emphasis will be placed on understanding the chemical basis underlying the successful utilization of these procedures. In addition, experiments to demonstrate the application of commercially available enzymes for useful synthetic organic transformations will be illustrated. Instructors: Hsieh-Wilson.

Ch 8.  Experimental Procedures of Synthetic Chemistry for Premedical Students. 9 units (1-6-2); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab and Ch 3 a or Ch 3 x. Previous or concurrent enrollment in Ch 41 is strongly recommended. Open to non-pre-medical students, as space allows. Introduction to methods of extraction, synthesis, separation and purification, and spectroscopic characterization of Aspirin, Tylenol, and medical test strips. Instructor: Mendez. 

Ch/ChE 9.  Chemical Synthesis and Characterization for Chemical Engineering. 9 units (1-6-2); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab and Ch 3 a or Ch 3 x. Previous or concurrent enrollment in Ch 41 is strongly recommended. Instruction in synthesis, separation, purification, and physical and spectroscopic characterization procedures of model organic and organometallic compounds. Specific emphasis will be focused on following the scientific method in the study of model organic and inorganic materials. Enrollment priority given to chemical engineering majors. Instructor: Mendez. 

Ch 10 abc.  Frontiers in Chemistry. 1 unit (1-0-0) first, second terms; 6 units (1-4-1) third term. Prerequisites: Open for credit to freshmen and sophomores. Ch 10 c prerequisites are Ch 10 ab, Ch 3 a or Ch 3 x, and either Ch 1 ab, Ch 41 ab, or Ch 21 ab, and instructor’s permission. Ch 10 ab is a weekly seminar by a member of the chemistry department on a topic of current research; the topic will be presented at an informal, introductory level. The other weekly session will acquaint students with the laboratory techniques and instrumentation used on the research topics. Ch 10 c is a research-oriented laboratory course, which will be supervised by a chemistry faculty member. Weekly class meetings will provide a forum for participants to discuss their research projects. Graded pass/fail. Instructors: Dervan, Hoelz. 

Ch 14. Chemical Equilibrium and Analysis. 9 units (2-3-4); third term. This course will cover acid-base equilibria, complex ion formation, chelation, oxidation-reduction reactions, and partitioning equilibria. These topics will serve as the basis for introducing separation techniques such is gas and liquid chromatography and the hyphenated techniques associated with them (GC-MS, LC-MS, etc.) Laboratory activities will be integrated with the course topics. Instructor: Dalleska. 

Ch 15. Chemical Equilibrium and Analysis Laboratory. 10 units (0-6-4); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ch 3 a or Ch 3 x, or instructor’s permission. Laboratory experiments are used to illustrate modern instrumental techniques that are currently employed in industrial and academic research. Emphasis is on determinations of chemical composition, measurement of equilibrium constants, evaluation of rates of chemical reactions, and trace-metal analysis. Instructors: Dalleska.

Ch 21 abc. Physical Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ph 2 a or Ph 12 a, Ma 2; Ma 3 is recommended. Atomic and molecular quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and chemical kinetics. Instructors: Chan (a), Blake (b), Beauchamp (c). 

Ch 24. Introduction to Biophysical Chemistry: Spectroscopy. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ph 2 a or Ph 12 a, Ma 2 and Ch 21 a. Develops the basic principles of the interaction of light with matter, including spectroscopic and scattering methods of macromolecular structure determination, with emphasis on biochemical and biophysical applications. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 25. Introduction to Biophysical Chemistry: Thermodynamics. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ph 2 a or Ph 12 a, Ma 2; Ch 21 a and Ch 24 recommended. Develops the basic principles of solution thermodynamics, transport processes, and reaction kinetics, with emphasis on biochemical and biophysical applications. Instructor: Rees.

Ch 41 abc. Organic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab or instructor’s permission. The synthesis, structure, and mechanisms of reactions of organic compounds. Instructors: Dougherty (a), Hsieh-Wilson (b), Fu (c) 

Ch 80. Chemical Research. Offered to B.S. candidates in chemistry. Units in accordance with work accomplished. Prerequisite: consent of research supervisor. Experimental and theoretical research requiring a report containing an appropriate description of the research work. 

Ch 81. Independent Reading in Chemistry. Units by arrangement. Prerequisite: instructor’s permission. Occasional advanced work involving reading assignments and a report on special topics. No more than 12 units in Ch 81 may be used as electives in the chemistry option. 

Ch 82/182. Senior Thesis Research. 9 units; first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: instructor’s permission. Three terms of Ch 82/182 are to be completed during the junior and/or senior year of study. Ch 182 is taken only by students pursuing a joint B.S./M.S. degree in Chemistry. At the end of the third term, students enrolled in Ch 82 will present a thesis of approximately 20 pages (excluding figures and references) to the mentor and the Chemistry Curriculum and Undergraduate Studies Committee. The thesis must be approved by both the research mentor and the CUSC. Students enrolled in Ch 182 will present a Masters Thesis, as described in requirements for the Masters degree. An oral thesis defense will be arranged by the CUSC in the third term for all enrollees. The first two terms of Ch 82/182 will be taken on a pass/fail basis, and the third term will carry a letter grade. Instructor: Staff.

Ch 90. Oral Presentation. 3 units (2-0-1); second term. Training in the techniques of oral presentation of chemical and biochemical topics. Practice in the effective organization and delivery of technical reports before groups. Strong oral presentation is an essential skill for successful job interviews and career advancement. Graded pass/fail. Instructor: Bikle. 

Ch/ChE 91. Scientific Writing. 3 units (2-0-1); first, second terms. Training in the writing of scientific research papers for chemists and chemical engineers. Fulfills the Institute scientific writing requirement. Instructor: Parker.

Ch 101. Chemistry Tutorials. 3 units (1-0-2); third term. Small group study and discussion on special areas of chemistry, chemical engineering, molecular biology, or biophysics. Instructors drawn from advanced graduate students and postdoctoral staff will lead weekly tutorial sessions and assign short homework assignments, readings, or discussions. Tutorials to be arranged with instructors before registration. Instructors: Gray, Okumura, Stoltz, Tirrell. 

Ch 102. Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 ab. Structure and bonding of inorganic species with special emphasis on spectroscopy, ligand substitution processes, oxidation-reduction reactions, organometallic and biological inorganic chemistry. Instructor: Agapie.

Bi/Ch 110. Introduction to Biochemistry. 12 units (4-0-8). For course description, see Biology. 

Bi/Ch 111. Biochemistry of Gene Expression. 12 units (4-0-8). For course description, see Biology. 

Ch 112. Inorganic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 102 or instructor’s permission. Introduction to group theory, ligand field theory, and bonding in coordination complexes and organotransition metal compounds. Systematics of bonding, reactivity, and spectroscopy of commonly encountered classes of transition metal compounds. Instructor: Agapie.

Bi/Ch 113. Biochemistry of the Cell. 12 units (4-0-8). For course description, see Biology. 

Ch 117. Introduction to Electrochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Discussion of the structure of electrode-electrolyte interface, the mechanism by which charge is transferred across it, and experimental techniques used to study electrode reactions. Topics change from year to year but usually include diffusion currents, polarography, coulometry, irreversible electrode reactions, the electrical double layer, and kinetics of electrode processes. Instructor: See. 

Ch 120 ab. Nature of the Chemical Bond. Ch 120 a: 9 units (3-0-6), first term; Ch 120 b:  (1-1-7), second term. Prerequisite: general exposure to quantum mechanics (e.g., Ch 21 a). Modern ideas of chemical bonding, with an emphasis on qualitative concepts useful for predictions of structures, energetics, excited states, and properties. Part a: The quantum mechanical basis for understanding bonding, structures, energetics, and properties of materials (polymers, ceramics, metals alloys, semiconductors, and surfaces), including transition metal and organometallic systems with a focus on chemical reactivity. The emphasis is on explaining chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of materials in terms of atomistic concepts. Part b: The student does an individual research project using modern quantum chemistry computer programs to calculate wavefunctions, structures, and properties of real molecules. Instructor: Goddard. 

Ch 121 ab. Atomic-Level Simulations of Materials and Molecules. Ch 121 a: 9 units (3-0-6) second term; Ch 121 b (1-1-7) third term. Prerequisites: Ch 21 a or Ch 125 a. Atomistic-based methods for predicting the structures and properties of molecules and solids and simulating the dynamical properties. The course will highlight theoretical foundations and applications of atomistic simulations to current problems in such areas as biological systems (proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, lipids); polymers (crystals, amorphous systems, copolymers); semiconductors (group IV, III-V, surfaces, defects); inorganic systems (ceramics, zeolites, superconductors, and metals); organometallics, and catalysis (heterogeneous and homogeneous). Part a covers the basic methods with hands-on applications to systems of interest using modern software. The homework for the 1st 5 weeks emphasizes computer-based solutions. For the exams and 2nd 5 weeks of the homework each student selects a short research project and uses atomistic simulations to solve it. For part b each student selects a more extensive research project and uses atomistic simulations to solve it. Instructor: Goddard.

Ch 122. Structure Determination by X-ray Crystallography. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc or instructor’s permission. This course provides an introduction to small molecule X-ray crystallography. Topics include symmetry, space groups, diffraction by crystals, the direct and reciprocal lattice, Patterson and direct methods for phase determination, and structure refinement. It will cover both theoretical and applied concepts and include hands-on experience in data collection, structure solution and structure refinement. Instructor: Takase.

Ch 125abc. The Elements of Quantum Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: Ch 21 abc or an equivalent brief introduction to quantum mechanics. A first course in molecular quantum mechanics consisting of a quantitative treatment of quantum mechanics with applications to systems of interest to chemists. The basic elements of quantum mechanics, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules, the interactions of radiation fields and matter, scattering theory, and reaction rate theory. Instructor: Okumura (a), Miller/Chan (b), part c Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 126. Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 21 and Ch 125 a/Ph 125 a or instructor’s permission. Quantum mechanical foundations of the spectroscopy of molecules. Topics include quantum theory of angular momentum, rovibrational Hamiltonian for polyatomic molecules, molecular symmetry and permutation-inversion groups, electronic spectroscopy, interaction of radiation and matter. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ge/Ch 127. Nuclear Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences. 

Ge/Ch 128. Cosmochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: instructor’s permission. For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences. 

Bi/Ch 132. Biophysics of Macromolecules. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Biology. 

Ch 135. Chemical Dynamics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc and Ch 41 abc, or equivalent, or instructor’s permission. Introduction to the kinetics and dynamics of chemical reactions. Topics include scattering cross sections, rate constants, intermolecular potentials, classical two-body elastic scattering, reactive scattering, nonadiabatic processes, statistical theories of unimolecular reactions, photochemistry, laser and molecular beam methods, theory of electron transfer, solvent effects, condensed phase dynamics, surface reactions, isotope effects. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch/ChE 140 ab. Principles and Applications of Semiconductor Photoelectrochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); second, third terms. Prerequisite: APh/EE 9 ab or instructor’s permission. The properties and photoelectrochemistry of semiconductors and semiconductor/liquid junction solar cells will be discussed. Topics include optical and electronic properties of semiconductors; electronic properties of semiconductor junctions with metals, liquids, and other semiconductors, in the dark and under illumination, with emphasis on semiconductor/liquid junctions in aqueous and nonaqueous media. Problems currently facing semiconductor/liquid junctions and practical applications of these systems will be highlighted. Instructor: Lewerenz (a), part b Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 143. NMR Spectroscopy for Structural Identification. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc. This course will address both one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques in NMR spectroscopy which are essential to elucidating structures of organic and organometallic samples. Dynamic NMR phenomena, multinuclear, paramagnetic and NOE effects will also be covered. An extensive survey of multipulse NMR methods will also contribute to a clear understanding of two-dimensional experiments. (Examples for Varian NMR instrumentation will be included.) Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 144 ab.  Advanced Organic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc; Ch 21 abc recommended. An advanced survey of selected topics in modern organic chemistry. Topics vary from year to year and may include structural and theoretical organic chemistry; materials chemistry; macromolecular chemistry; mechanochemistry; molecular recognition/supramolecular chemistry; reaction mechanisms; reactive intermediates; pericyclic reactions; and photochemistry. Instructors: Dougherty (a), Robb (b). 

Ch 145.  Bioorganic Chemistry of Proteins. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc; Bi/Ch 110 recommended. An advanced survey of current and classic topics in bioorganic chemistry/chemical biology. The content will vary from year to year and may include the structure, function, and synthesis of peptides and proteins; enzyme catalysis and inhibition; cellular metabolism; chemical genetics; genomics and proteomics; posttranslational modifications; chemical tools to study cellular dynamics; and enzyme evolution. Instructor: Ondrus.

Ch 146. Bioorganic Chemistry of Nucleic Acids. 9 units (3-0-6). Prerequisite: Ch 41 ab. The course will examine the bioorganic chemistry of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA structures, molecular recognition, and mechanistic analyses of covalent modification of nucleic acids. Topics include synthetic methods for the construction of DNA and RNA; separation techniques; recognition of duplex DNA by peptide analogs, proteins, and oligonucleotide-directed triple helical formation; RNA structure and RNA as catalysts (ribozymes). Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch/ChE 147. Polymer Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6), second term. Prerequisite: Ch 41 abc. An introduction to the chemistry of polymers, including synthetic methods, mechanisms and kinetics of macromolecule formation, and characterization techniques. Instructor: Grubbs.  

ChE/Ch 148. Polymer Physics. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Chemical Engineering. 

Ch 149. Tutorial in Organic Chemistry. 6 units (2-0-4); first term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc and instructor’s permission. Discussion of key principles in organic chemistry, with an emphasis on reaction mechanisms and problem-solving. This course is intended primarily for first-year graduate students with a strong foundation in organic chemistry. Meets during the first three weeks of the term. Graded pass/fail. Instructors: Fu, Stoltz. 

Ch 153 ab. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); second, third terms. Prerequisites: Ch 112 and Ch 21 abc or concurrent registration. Ch 153 a: Topics in modern inorganic chemistry. Electronic structure, spectroscopy, and photochemistry with emphasis on examples from the modern research literature. Ch 153 b: Applications of physical methods toward the characterization of inorganic and bioinorganic species. A range of spectroscopic approaches will be covered. Instructors: Gray, Winkler (a), part b Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 154 ab. Organometallic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); second, third terms. Prerequisite: Ch 112 or equivalent. A general discussion of the reaction mechanisms and the synthetic and catalytic uses of transition metal organometallic compounds. Second term: a survey of the elementary reactions and methods for investigating reaction mechanisms. Third term: contemporary topics in inorganic and organometallic synthesis, structure and bonding, and applications in catalysis. Instructor: Peters (a), part b Not offered 2017–18.

ChE/Ch 155. Chemistry of Catalysis. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Chemical Engineering. 

ChE/Ch 164. Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Chemical Engineering. 

ChE/Ch 165. Chemical Thermodynamics. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Chemical Engineering.

Ch 166. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: Ch 21 abc or equivalent. Transport processes in dilute gases; Boltzmann equation; Brownian motion; Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations; linear response theory; time-correlation functions and applications; nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Not offered 2017–18. 

BMB/Bi/Ch 170. Biochemistry and Biophysics of Macromolecules and Molecular Assemblies. 9 units (3- 0-6); first term. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics. 

ESE/Ge/Ch 171. Atmospheric Chemistry I. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Environmental Science and Engineering. 

ESE/Ge/Ch 172. Atmospheric Chemistry II. 3 units (3-0-0). For course description, see Environmental Science and Engineering. 

BMB/Bi/Ch 173. Biophysical/Structural Methods. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.

BMB/Bi/Ch 174. Molecular Machines in the Cell. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.

ESE/Ch 175.  Physical Chemistry of Engineered Waters. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. For course description, see Environmental Science and Engineering.

ESE/Ch 176. Physical Organic Chemistry of Natural Waters. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. For course description, see Environmental Science and Engineering.

BMB/Ch 178. Macromolecular Function: Kinetics, Energetics, and Mechanisms. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.

Ch 180. Chemical Research. Units by arrangement. Offered to M.S. candidates in chemistry. Graded pass/fail. 

BMB/Ch 202 abc. Biochemistry Seminar Course. 1 unit; first, second, third terms. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.

Ch 212. Bioinorganic Chemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 112 and Bi/Ch 110 or equivalent. Current topics in bioinorganic chemistry will be discussed, including metal storage and regulation, metalloenzyme structure and reactions, biological electron transfer, metalloprotein design, and metal-nucleic acid interactions and reactions. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 213 abc. Advanced Ligand Field Theory. 12 units (1-0-11); first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: Ch 21 abc or concurrent registration. A tutorial course of problem solving in the more advanced aspects of ligand field theory. Recommended only for students interested in detailed theoretical work in the inorganic field. Instructor: Gray. 

Ch 227 ab. Advanced Topics in Chemical Physics. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ch 125 abc or Ph 125 abc or equivalent. The goal of this course is to utilize approaches derived from the chemico-physical to understand what are often considered complex biological problems. The course is a literature driven course with a strong emphasis on student participation. Not offered 2017–18.

Ch 228. Dynamics and Complexity in Physical and Life Sciences. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. This course is concerned with the structure-dynamics-function of complex systems, from materials to chemical and biological functions. We will address principles of elementary dynamics as they relate to the nature of the structures involved. An overview of modern techniques, such as those involving lasers, NMR, diffraction and imaging will be overviewed. Applications include areas in physics, chemistry and biology, covering phenomena of interest, from coherence and chaos to molecular recognition and self-assembly. Course requirement, which includes writing a “science paper” and presentation, will be outlined in the first meeting. Not offered 2017–18. 

BMB/Ch 230. Macromolecular Structure Determination with Modern X-ray Crystallography Methods. 12 units (2-4-6); Third term. For course description, see Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.

Ch/Bi 231. Advanced Topics in Biochemistry. 6 units (2-0-4); third term. Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. Topics: the subunit structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerases and their role in transcriptional reactions; the composition of eukaryotic promoters, including regulatory units; general and specific transcription factors; developmental regulatory circuits and factors; structural motifs involved in DNA binding and transcriptional initiation and control. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 242 ab. Chemical Synthesis. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second terms. Prerequisite: Ch 41 abc. An integrated approach to synthetic problem solving featuring an extensive review of modern synthetic reactions with concurrent development of strategies for synthesis design. Part a will focus on the application of modern methods of stereocontrol in the construction of stereochemically complex acyclic systems. Part b will focus on strategies and reactions for the synthesis of cyclic systems. Instructors: Stoltz (a), Virgil (b).

Ch 247. Organic Reaction Mechanisms. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc, Ch 242 a recommended. This course will discuss and uncover useful strategies and tactics for approaching complex reaction mechanisms prevalent in organic reactions. Topics include: cycloaddition chemistry, rearrangements, radical reactions, metal-catalyzed processes, photochemical reactions among others. Recommended only for students interested in advanced study in organic chemistry or related fields. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 250. Advanced Topics in Chemistry. 3 units; third term. Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course. In Spring 2016 the class will be a seminar course in pharmaceutical chemistry with lectures by industrial researchers from both discovery (medicinal chemistry) and development (process chemistry) departments. Not offered 2017–18. 

Ch 251. Advanced Topics in Chemical Biology. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 145 or 146 or consent of the instructor. Content will vary from year to year; advanced topics in chemical biology are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may lead portions of this course. In Winter 2018, the seminar course will be interactive classroom learning covering both fundamental discoveries and applied technologies in nucleic acids and genome sciences. Instructors: Dervan, Ondrus.

Ch 280. Chemical Research. Hours and units by arrangement. By arrangement with members of the faculty, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research in chemistry.