# Graduate Courses (2021-22)

Ae 100.
Research in Aerospace.
Units to be arranged in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Open to suitably qualified undergraduates and first-year graduate students under the direction of the staff. Credit is based on the satisfactory completion of a substantive research report, which must be approved by the Ae 100 adviser and by the option representative.

APh 100.
Advanced Work in Applied Physics.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Special problems relating to applied physics, arranged to meet the needs of students wishing to do advanced work. Primarily for undergraduates. Students should consult with their advisers before registering. Graded pass/fail.

CE 100.
Special Topics in Civil Engineering.
Units to be based upon work done, any term:
.
Special problems or courses arranged to meet the needs of first-year graduate students or qualified undergraduate students. Graded pass/fail.

CNS 100.
Introduction to Computation and Neural Systems.
1 unit:
first term.
This course is designed to introduce undergraduate and first-year CNS graduate students to the wide variety of research being undertaken by CNS faculty. Topics from all the CNS research labs are discussed and span the range from biology to engineering. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Siapas.

E 100.
Special Topics in Engineering Applied Science.
Units to be arranged:
terms to be arranged.
Prerequisites: none.
Content may vary from year to year, at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate students. Topics will be chosen to meet the emerging needs of students.
Instructor: TBD.

En 100.
Artificial Life: Literary Automata.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Well before the advent of the Machine Age, literary texts have been populated by various kinds of ingenious automata, often in animal or human form. This course surveys the role of the automaton in literary texts in order to consider how the notion of "artificial life" changes over time, with a focus on the special case of the human machine. Readings from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to include texts by la Mettrie, Hoffmann, Kleist, Shelley, Poe, and de l'Isle-Adam. We will conclude with a classic text from the twentieth century: Isaac Asimov's "I, Robot".
Instructor: Holland.

ESE 100.
Special Problems in Environmental Science and Engineering.
Up to 12 units by arrangement:
any term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Special courses of readings or laboratory instruction. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

ME 100.
Independent Studies in Mechanical Engineering.
Units are assigned in accordance with work accomplished:
.
A faculty mentor will oversee a student proposed, independent research or study project to meet the needs of undergraduate students. Graded pass/fail. The consent of a faculty mentor and a written report is required for each term of work.

MedE 100 abc.
Medical Engineering Seminar.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
All PhD degree candidates in Medical Engineering are required to attend all MedE seminars. If there is no MedE seminar during a week, then the students should go to any other graduate-level seminar that week. Students should broaden their knowledge of the engineering principles and sciences of medical engineering. Students are expected to learn the forefronts of the research and development of medical materials, technologies, devices and systems from the seminars. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors: Gao, Tai, Wang.

MS 100.
Advanced Work in Materials Science.
:
.
The staff in materials science will arrange special courses or problems to meet the needs of students working toward the M.S. degree or of qualified undergraduate students. Graded pass/fail for research and reading.
Instructor: Staff.

Pl 100.
Free Will.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course examines the question of what it means to have free will, whether and why free will is desirable, and whether humans have free will. Topics may include historical discussions of free will from writers such as Aristotle, Boethius, and Hume; what it means for a scientific theory to be deterministic, and whether determinism is compatible with free will; the connection between free will and moral responsibility; the relationship between free will and the notion of the self; beliefs about free will; the psychology of decision making; and the insanity defense in law. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hitchcock.

SEC 100.
Special Topics in Scientific and Engineering Communication.
Units to be arranged:
terms to be arranged in consultation with the instructor.
Content may vary from year to year, at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate students. Topics will be chosen to meet the emerging needs of students.
Instructor: Javier.

ACM/IDS 101 ab.
Methods of Applied Mathematics.
12 units (4-4-4):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Math 2/102 and ACM 95 ab or equivalent.
First term: Brief review of the elements of complex analysis and complex-variable methods. Asymptotic expansions, asymptotic evaluation of integrals (Laplace method, stationary phase, steepest descents), perturbation methods, WKB theory, boundary-layer theory, matched asymptotic expansions with first-order and high-order matching. Method of multiple scales for oscillatory systems. Second term: Applied spectral theory, special functions, generalized eigenfunction expansions, convergence theory. Gibbs and Runge phenomena and their resolution. Chebyshev expansion and Fourier Continuation methods. Review of numerical stability theory for time evolution. Fast spectrally-accurate PDE solvers for linear and nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in general domains. Integral-equations methods for linear partial differential equation in general domains (Laplace, Helmholtz, Schroedinger, Maxwell, Stokes). Homework problems in both 101 a and 101 b include theoretical questions as well as programming implementations of the mathematical and numerical methods studied in class.
Instructor: Bruno.

Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc.
Fluid Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: APh 17 or ME 11 abc, and ME 12 or equivalent, ACM 95/100 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. Microscopic and macroscopic properties of liquids and gases; the continuum hypothesis; review of thermodynamics; general equations of motion; kinematics; stresses; constitutive relations; vorticity, circulation; Bernoulli's equation; potential flow; thin-airfoil theory; surface gravity waves; buoyancy-driven flows; rotating flows; viscous creeping flow; viscous boundary layers; introduction to stability and turbulence; quasi one-dimensional compressible flow; shock waves; unsteady compressible flow; and acoustics.
Instructors: Pullin, Austin, Colonius.

An 101.
Selected Topics in Anthropology.
Units to be determined by arrangement with the instructor:
offered by announcement.
Topics to be determined by instructor.
Instructor: Staff.

Ay 101.
Physics of Stars.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ay 20 is recommended.
Physics of stellar interiors and atmospheres. Properties of stars, stellar spectra, radiative transfer, line formation. Stellar structure, stellar evolution. Nucleosynthesis in stars. Stellar oscillations.
Instructor: Mawet.

BE/Bi 101.
Order of Magnitude Biology.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: none.
In this course, students will develop skills in the art of educated guesswork and apply them to the biological sciences. Building from a few key numbers in biology, students will "size up" biological systems by making inferences and generating hypotheses about phenomena such as the rates and energy budgets of key biological processes. The course will cover the breadth of biological scales: molecular, cellular, organismal, communal, and planetary. Undergraduate and graduate students of all levels are welcome. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Bois, Phillips.

BEM 101.
Selected Topics in Business Economics and Management.
Units to be determined by arrangement with the instructor:
offered by announcement.
Topics determined by instructor.
Instructors: Staff, visiting lecturers.

Ch 101.
Chemistry Tutorials.
3 units (1-0-2):
third term.
Small group study and discussion on special areas of chemistry, chemical engineering, molecular biology, or biophysics. Instructors drawn from advanced graduate students and postdoctoral staff will lead weekly tutorial sessions and assign short homework assignments, readings, or discussions. Tutorials to be arranged with instructors before registration.
Instructor: Staff.

ChE 101.
Chemical Reaction Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ChE 62, ChE 63 ab, ChE 103 a or instructor's permission.
Elements of chemical kinetics and chemically reacting systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Chemical reactor analysis.
Instructor: Vicic.

CS 101.
Special Topics in Computer Science.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
offered by announcement.
Prerequisites: CS 21 and CS 38, or instructor's permission.
The topics covered vary from year to year, depending on the students and staff. Primarily for undergraduates.

Ec 101.
Selected Topics in Economics.
Units to be determined by arrangement with the instructor:
offered by announcement.
Topics to be determined by instructor.
Instructors: Staff, visiting lecturers.

En 101.
Recalling the Wild.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
City-dwellers invented the concept of wilderness, as a space apart from human laws and culture. This course takes a critical look at the different values attributed to that space as it has been colonized by the human imagination. Our discussions will focus on the emergence of the perception of wilderness in European literature in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but we conclude with the question: what meaning do we invest the concept of "wilderness" with today? Readings will include works by Buffon, Toqueville, Chateaubriand, Byron, Thoreau, Wells, and London.
Instructor: Holland.

ESE 101.
Earth's Atmosphere.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Introduction to the fundamental processes governing atmospheric circulations and climate. Starting from an overview of the observed state of the atmosphere and its variation over the past, the course discusses Earth's radiative energy balance including the greenhouse effect, Earth's orbit around the Sun and climatic effects of its variations, and the role of atmospheric circulations in maintaining the energy, angular momentum, and water balances, which determine the distributions of temperatures, winds, and precipitation. The focus throughout is on order-of-magnitude physics that is applicable to climates generally, including those of Earth's past and future and of other planets.
Instructor: Schneider.

ESL 101 ab.
Oral Communication and Presentation.
3 units (3-0-0):
first, second terms.
This course focuses on preparing non-native speakers of English with the communication skills necessary to organize, present or exchange information in a clear, concise manner to a variety of audiences. ESL 101a will provide instruction on the development of pronunciation, intonation patterns and stress, grammar and verb tense, listening comprehension, and fluency in speaking. Aspects of American culture as well as come current events will be discussed. ESL 101b is a continuation of ESL 101a, and covers a variety of oral presentation skills. Students will be asked to paraphrase, summarize, and synthesize information from a journal article or in-class discussions and communicate ideas to the class. The class will discuss information from readings and other media sources in small groups to collect and organize ideas for discussion. ESL 101ab is open to all first-year graduate students and may be required for some students designated by the ESL interview process during Orientation. A passing grade will satisfy the Institute English proficiency requirement for candidacy. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 101.
Introduction to Geology and Geochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission.
A broad, high-level survey of geology and geochemistry with emphasis on quantitative understanding. Historical deduction in the geological and planetary sciences. Plate tectonics as a unifying theory of geology. Igneous and metamorphic processes, structural geology and geomorphology; weathering and sedimentary processes. Nucleosynthesis and chemical history of the solar system; distribution of the elements in the earth; isotopic systems as tracers and clocks; evolution of the biosphere; global geochemical and biogeochemical cycles; geochemical constraints on deep Earth structure. One mandatory overnight field trip, selected laboratory exercises, and problem sets.
Instructor: Wernicke.

Hum 101.
Topics in French Culture.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with L 101. Hum 105 and Hum 101 taught in alternate years. The course focuses on contemporary France. Topics may include France and the European Union; political parties and elections; family life; social protection; religion; education; media and technology. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in French may enroll in this class as L 101. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orcel.

L 101.
Topics in French Culture.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with Hum 101. L 105 and L 101 taught in alternate years. The course focuses on contemporary France. Topics may include France and the European Union; political parties and elections; family life; social protection; religion; education; media and technology. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 101, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orcel.

MedE 101.
Introduction to Clinical Physiology and Pathophysiology for Engineers.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: No Prerequisites, Bi 1 or equivalent recommended.
The goal of this course is to introduce engineering scientists to medical physiological systems: with a special emphasis on the clinical relevance. The design of the course is to present two related lectures each week: An overview of the physiology of a system followed by examples of current clinical medical challenges and research highlighting diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The final three weeks of the course will be a mini-work shop where the class explores challenging problems in medical physiology. The course ultimately seeks to promote a bridge between relevant clinical problems and engineering scientists who desire to solve them. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Petrasek.

Ph 101.
Order-of-Magnitude Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Emphasis will be on using basic physics to understand complicated systems. Examples will be selected from properties of materials, geophysics, weather, planetary science, astrophysics, cosmology, biomechanics, etc. Offered in alternate years. Not offered 2021-22.

PS 101.
Selected Topics in Political Science.
Units to be determined by arrangement with the instructor:
offered by announcement.
Instructor: Staff.

Psy 101.
Selected Topics in Psychology.
Units determined by arrangement with the instructor:
offered by announcement.
Instructor: Staff.

Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc.
Mechanics of Structures and Solids.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME 12 abc.
Introduction to continuum mechanics: kinematics, balance laws, constitutive laws with an emphasis on solids. Static and dynamic stress analysis. Two- and three-dimensional theory of stressed elastic solids. Wave propagation. Analysis of rods, plates and shells with applications in a variety of fields. Variational theorems and approximate solutions. Elastic stability.
Instructors: Rosakis, Ravichandran.

An 102.
Ancient Tech: The Archaeology of Revolutionary Inventions.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Technology has influenced our lives for over 3 million years - ever since human ancestors crafted the first stone tools. In this class we will investigate ancient inventions that transformed human societies. Using archaeological methods, theory, and evidence we will reconstruct past technologies and their social consequences. We will evaluate why and how similar technologies arose independently in different cultural contexts. The class will focus on inventions in four realms: 1) stone, bone and metal weaponry, 2) writing and other record keeping systems like the Inka khipu, 3) land transformation and agriculture, and 4) transportation including networks like the Silk Road. Throughout the term, students will work on an anthropological research project of their choice. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 102.
Physics of the Interstellar Medium.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ay 20 is recommended.
An introduction to observations of the inter-stellar medium and relevant physical processes. The structure and hydrodynamic evolution of ionized hydrogen regions associated with massive stars and supernovae, thermal balance in neutral and ionized phases, star formation and global models for the interstellar medium.
Instructor: Steidel.

BEM 102.
Introduction to Accounting.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course combines accounting and finance in a dynamic, user-oriented approach. The goal is to enable students to understand what financial statements are (sources of information about a company), what they are not (facts devoid of interpretation or management influence), and how to critically understand and analyze them. The course will utilize actual SEC filings for several companies, across a variety of industries, through which the students will be exposed to important accounting concepts.
Instructor: McAniff.

Ch 102.
Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry.
9 units (4-0-5):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 ab.
Structure and bonding of inorganic species with special emphasis on spectroscopy, ligand substitution processes, oxidation-reduction reactions, organometallic, biological inorganic chemistry, and solid-state chemistry.
Instructors: Hadt, See.

CNS/Psy/Bi 102 ab.
Brains, Minds, and Society.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 and CNS/Bi/Ph/CS/NB 187, or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the computations made by the brain during economic and social decision making and their neural substrates. Part a: Reinforcement learning. Unconscious and conscious processing. Emotion. Behavioral economics. Goal-directed and habit learning. Facial processing in social neuroscience. Part b: History and mechanisms of reinforcement. Associative learning. Mentalizing and strategic thinking. Neural basis of prosociality. Exploration-exploitation tradeoff. Functions of basal ganglia.
Instructors: Adolphs/O'Doherty, Camerer.

CS 102 abc.
Seminar in Computer Science.
3, 6, or 9 units as arranged with the instructor:
.
Instructor's permission required.

E/SEC 102.
Scientific and Technology Entrepreneurship.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course introduces students to the conceptual frameworks, the analytical approaches, the personal understanding and skills, and the actions required to launch a successful technology-based company. Specifically, it addresses the challenges of evaluating new technologies and original business ideas for commercialization, determining how best to implement those ideas in a startup venture, attracting the resources needed for a new venture (e.g., key people, corporate partners, and funding), organizing and operating a new enterprise, structuring and negotiating important business relationships, and leading early stage companies toward "launch velocity".
Instructor: TBD.

ESE 102.
Earth's Oceans.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course will provide a basic introduction to physical, chemical, and biological properties of Earth's ocean. The course is divided into three parts that address various aspects of the marine carbon cycle, including carbon and tracer transport by the ocean circulation, carbonate chemistry, and fixation/respiration of carbon by biological processes. The focus of the course is on understanding the processes that give rise to observed distributions of physical and biogeochemical properties in the ocean. We will also discuss the ocean's role in the climate system as well as in situ and remote sensing techniques for monitoring changing ocean properties.
Instructor: Thompson.

Ge 102.
Introduction to Geophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ph 2, or Ge 108, or equivalents.
An introduction to the physics of the earth. The present internal structure and dynamics of the earth are considered in light of constraints from the gravitational and magnetic fields, seismology, and mineral physics. The fundamentals of wave propagation in earth materials are developed and applied to inferring Earth structure. The earthquake source is described in terms of seismic and geodetic signals. The following are also considered: the contributions that heat-flow, gravity, paleomagnetic, and earthquake mechanism data have made to our understanding of plate tectonics, the driving mechanism of plate tectonics, and the energy sources of mantle convection and the geodynamo.
Instructors: Clayton, Gurnis.

HPS 102 ab.
Senior Research Seminar.
12 units (2-0-10):
.
Offered in any two consecutive terms, by arrangement with HPS faculty. Under the guidance of an HPS faculty member, students will research and write a focused research paper of 15,000 words (approximately 50 pages). Work in the first term will comprise intensive reading in the relevant literature and/or archival or other primary source research. In the second term, students will draft and revise their paper. Open to seniors in the HPS option and to others by special permission of an HPS faculty member.
Instructor: Staff.

L 102 abc.
Elementary French.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
The course uses a multimedia program, and emphasizes the acquisition of fundamental skills: oral ability, comprehension, writing, and reading. Students are evaluated on the basis of quizzes and compositions (1/3), midterm and final (1/3), and class participation (1/3). The course is mainly designed for students with no previous knowledge of French. Students who have had French in secondary school or college must consult with the instructor before registering.
Instructor: Orcel.

Pl 102.
Selected Topics in Philosophy.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
Prerequisites: Hum/Pl 40 or Hum/Pl 41 or instructorâ€™s permission.

VC/H 102.
Looking East/Looking West.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
From teapots to pastries, photographs to palanquins, objects and images mediated encounters between people and helped define the "Orient" and the "Occident". This class looks at the visual and material culture produced by and consumed during encounters between European and Asian travelers, diplomats, artists, writers, and tourists since the eighteenth century.
Instructor: Clark.

Ae 103 ab.
Aerospace Control Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second and third terms.
Prerequisites: CDS 110 (or equivalent), CDS 131 or permission of instructor.
Part a: Optimization-based design of control systems, including optimal control and receding horizon control. Introductory random processes and optimal estimation. Kalman filtering and nonlinear filtering methods for autonomous systems. Part b: Nonlinear control design for aerospace systems, flight dynamics, and attitude dynamics. Guidance, navigation, and control of autonomous aerospace systems.
Instructor: Murray.

BE/Bi 103 a.
Introduction to Data Analysis in the Biological Sciences.
9 units (1-3-5):
first term.
Prerequisites: Bi 1, Bi 1x, Bi 8, or equivalent; or instructor's permission.
This course covers tools needed to analyze quantitative data in biological systems. Students learn basic programming topics, data organization and wrangling, data display and presentation, basic image processing, and resampling-based statistical inference. Students analyze real data in class and in homework.
Instructor: Bois.

BE/Bi 103 b.
Statistical Inference in the Biological Sciences.
9 units (1-3-5):
second term.
Prerequisites: BE/Bi 103 a or equivalent; Ma 1 abc and Ma 3, or Bi/CNS/NB 195, or equivalent; or instructor's permission.
This course introduces students to statistical modeling and inference, primarily taking a Bayesian approach. Topics include generative modeling, parameter estimation, model comparison, hierarchical modeling, Markov chain Monte Carlo, graphical display of inference results, and principled workflows. Other topics may also be included. All techniques are applied to real biological data sets in class and in homework.
Instructor: Bois.

BEM 103.
Introduction to Finance.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11 required; Ma 1 abc recommended (to be familiar with calculus and linear algebra).
Finance, or financial economics, covers two main areas: asset pricing and corporate finance. For asset pricing, a field that studies how investors value securities and make investment decisions, we will discuss topics like prices, risk, and return, portfolio choice, CAPM, market efficiency and bubbles, interest rates and bonds, and futures and options. For corporate finance, a field that studies how firms make financing decisions, we will discuss topics like security issuance, capital structure, and firm investment decisions (the net present value approach, and mergers and acquisitions). In addition, if time permits, we will cover some topics in behavioral finance and household finance such as limits to arbitrage and investor behavior.
Instructor: Jin.

ChE 103 abc.
Transport Phenomena.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab or concurrent registration; ChE 101 required for ChE 103 c or instructor's permission.
A rigorous development of the basic differential equations of conservation of momentum, energy, and mass in fluid systems. Solution of problems involving fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer.
Instructors: Kornfield (a), Shapiro (b, c).

CS 103 abc.
Reading in Computer Science.
3, 6, or 9 units as arranged with the instructor:
.
Instructor's permission required.

E/SEC 103.
Management of Technology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A course intended for students interested in learning how rapidly evolving technologies are harnessed to produce useful products or fertile new area for research. Students will work through Harvard Business School case studies, supplemented by lectures to elucidate the key issues. There will be a term project where students predict the future evolution of an exciting technology. The course is team-based and designed for students considering choosing an exciting research area, working in companies (any size, including start-ups) or eventually going to business school. Topics include technology as a growth agent, financial fundamentals, integration into other business processes, product development pipeline and portfolio management, learning curves, risk assessment, technology trend methodologies (scenarios, projections), motivation, rewards and recognition. Industries considered will include electronics (hardware and software), aerospace, medical, biotech, etc. Students will perform both primary and secondary research and through analysis present defensible projections. E/SEC 102 and E/ME/MedE 105 are useful but not required precursors. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: TBD.

En 103.
Introduction to Medieval British Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course offers a tour of major (as well as some minor) genres and works written in Britain prior to 1500. Far from a literary "dark age," the Middle Ages fostered dramatic experiments in narrative form, bequeathing to modern literature some of its best-loved genres and texts. We will practice reading in Middle English-the language of Chaucer and his contemporaries-while we concentrate on the following questions: how did these texts circulate among readers? How do they establish their authority? What kinds of historical and cultural currents to they engage? Texts may include the lives of saints, the confessions of sinners, dranma, lyrics, romances, selections from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Malory's Morte Darthur. Readings will be in Middle and modern English. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 103.
Earth's Biogeochemical Cycles.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
provide a basic introduction to Global Biogeochemical cycles, with a focus on drivers of the global biosphereFor course description, see Computer Science.. Topics to be covered include fundamentals of photosynthesis and its quantitative formulation, impact of nutrients, microbial processes underlying weathering, decomposition, and carbon remineralization, box modeling, hydrological cycle, land surface energy balance and basics of land surface modeling, ecosystem processes and the human footprint. Scripting (Matlab) knowledge useful for homework sets.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 103.
Introduction to the Solar System.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Formation and evolution of the solar system. Interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres. Orbital dynamics, chaos, and tidal friction. Cratering. Comets and asteroids. Extrasolar planetary systems.
Instructor: Ingersoll.

HPS 103.
Public Lecture Series.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
Student attend four lectures, featuring speakers from outside Caltech, on topics in the history and philosophy of science. Students may choose from a variety of regularly scheduled HPS lectures, including HPS seminars, Harris lectures, and Munro seminars (history or philosophy of science only). Graded on attendance. Not available for credit toward the humanities-social science requirement. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Visiting lecturers.

L 103 abc.
Intermediate French.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 102 abc or equivalent.
The first two terms feature an extensive grammar review and group activities that promote self- expression. Op-Ed articles and a series of literary texts provide a basis for classroom discussion and vocabulary expansion. Several short-written compositions are required. The third term is designed to further develop an active command of the language. A variety of 19th- and 20th-century short stories are discussed in class to improve comprehension and oral proficiency. Students are expected to do an oral presentation, to write four short compositions, and a final paper.
Instructors: Merrill, Orcel.

ACM/IDS 104.
Applied Linear Algebra.
9 units (3-1-5):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1 abc, some familiarity with MATLAB, e.g. ACM 11 is desired.
This is an intermediate linear algebra course aimed at a diverse group of students, including junior and senior majors in applied mathematics, sciences and engineering. The focus is on applications. Matrix factorizations play a central role. Topics covered include linear systems, vector spaces and bases, inner products, norms, minimization, the Cholesky factorization, least squares approximation, data fitting, interpolation, orthogonality, the QR factorization, ill-conditioned systems, discrete Fourier series and the fast Fourier transform, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the spectral theorem, optimization principles for eigenvalues, singular value decomposition, condition number, principal component analysis, the Schur decomposition, methods for computing eigenvalues, non-negative matrices, graphs, networks, random walks, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, PageRank algorithm.
Instructor: Zuev.

Ae/APh 104 abc.
Experimental Methods.
9 units (3-0-6) first term; (0-6-3) second, third terms:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab or equivalent (may be taken concurrently), Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Lectures on experiment design and implementation. Measurement methods, transducer fundamentals, instrumentation, optical systems, signal processing, noise theory, analog and digital electronic fundamentals, with data acquisition and processing systems. Experiments (second and third terms) in solid and fluid mechanics with emphasis on current research methods.
Instructor: McKeon.

Ay/Ph 104.
Relativistic Astrophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 1, Ph 2 ab.
This course is designed primarily for junior and senior undergraduates in astrophysics and physics. It covers the physics of black holes and neutron stars, including accretion, particle acceleration and gravitational waves, as well as their observable consequences: (neutron stars) pulsars, magnetars, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts; (black holes) X-ray transients, tidal disruption and quasars/active galaxies and sources of gravitational waves.
Instructor: Kasliwal.

BEM 104.
Investments.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11, BEM 103, some familiarity with statistics.
Examines the theory of financial decision making and statistical techniques useful in analyzing financial data. Topics include portfolio selection, equilibrium security pricing, empirical analysis of equity securities, fixed-income markets, market efficiency, and risk management.
Instructor: Roll.

Ch 104.
Intermediate Organic Chemistry.
9 units (4-0-5):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc.
A survey of selected topics beyond introductory organic chemistry, including reaction mechanisms and catalysis.
Instructor: Fu.

En 104.
Imagining the Medieval in the Nineteenth Century.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Following the Enlightenment and amidst the Industrial Revolution, the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw a surging interest in the literature, lives, art, and architecture of the Middle Ages. In this course, we will explore how authors represented, invoked, and often idealized the medieval past-with its knights, peasants, saints, and monsters-as a way to think through the challenges-social, literary, political, aesthetic-of their own time. We will read several novels, poems, and treatises, including Henry David Thoreau's essay, "Walking;" Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; Alfred Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King; and others. Requirements for the course will include weekly response papers and two essays. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 104.
Current Problems in Environmental Science and Engineering.
1 unit:
first term.
Discussion of current research by ESE graduate students, faculty, and staff.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 104.
Introduction to Geobiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Lectures about the interaction and coevolution of life and Earth surface environments. We will cover essential concepts and major outstanding questions in the field of geobiology, and introduce common approaches to solving these problems. Topics will include biological fractionation of stable isotopes; history and operation of the carbon and sulfur cycles; evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis; biomineralization; mass extinctions; analyzing biodiversity data; constructing simple mathematical models constrained by isotope mass balance; working with public databases of genetic information; phlyogenetic techniques; microbial and molecular evolution.
Instructors: Fischer, Kirschvink.

L 104.
French Cinema.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent.
A critical survey of major directors, genres, and movements in French cinema. Particular attention is devoted to the development of film theory and criticism in France and their relation to film production. The course may also focus on problems of transposition from literature to cinema. The course includes screenings of films by Melies, Dulac, Clair, Renoir, Carne, Pagnol, Cocteau, Bresson, Tati, Truffaut, Godard, Resnais, Lelouch, Malle, Pialat, Rohmer, and Varda. Students are expected to write three 5-page critical papers. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as VC 104, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orcel.

VC 104.
French Cinema.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
A critical survey of major directors, genres, and movements in French cinema. Particular attention is devoted to the development of film theory and criticism in France and their relation to film production. The course may also focus on problems of transposition from literature to cinema. The course includes screenings of films by Melies, Dulac, Clair, Renoir, Carne, Pagnol, Cocteau, Bresson, Tati, Truffaut, Godard, Resnais, Lelouch, Malle, Pialat, Rohmer, and Varda. Students are expected to write three 5-page critical papers. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as VC 104, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement.
Instructor: Orcel.

ACM 105.
Applied Real and Functional Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 108a, ACM/IDS 104 or equivalent.
This course is about the fundamental concepts in real and functional analysis that are vital for many topics and applications in mathematics, physics, computing and engineering. The aim of this course is to provide a working knowledge of functional analysis with an eye especially for aspects that lend themselves to applications. The course gives an overview of the interplay between different functional spaces and focuses on the following three key concepts: Hahn-Banach theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorem, uniform boundedness principle. Other core concepts include: normed linear spaces and behavior of linear maps, completeness, Banach spaces, Hilbert spaces, Lp spaces, duality of normed spaces and dual operators, dense subspaces and approximations, hyperplanes, compactness, weak and weak* convergence. More advanced topics include: spectral theory, compact operators, theory of distributions (generalized functions), Fourier analysis, calculus of variations, Sobolev spaces with applications to PDEs, weak solvability theory of boundary value problems.

Ae 105 abc.
Space Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6) first term, (2-4-3) second term, (0-8-1) third term:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME 11 abc and ME 12 abc or equivalent.
Part a: Design of space missions based on astrodynamics. Topics include conic orbits with perturbations (J2, drag, and solar radiation pressure), Lambert's Theorem, periodic orbits and ground tracks, invariant manifolds, and the variational equation with mission applications to planetary flybys, constellation, formation flying, and low energy planetary capture and landing. Part b: Introduction to spacecraft systems and subsystems, mission design, rocket mechanics, launch vehicles, and space environments; spacecraft mechanical, structural, and thermal design; communication and power systems; preliminary discussion and setup for team project leading to system requirements review. Part c: Team project leading to preliminary design review and critical design review.
Instructors: Campagnola, Braun, Pellegrino.

APh/MS 105 abc.
States of Matter.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: APh 17 abc or equivalent.
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, with emphasis on gases, liquids, materials, and condensed matter. Effects of heat, pressure, and fields on states of matter are presented with both classical thermodynamics and with statistical mechanics. Conditions of equilibrium in systems with multiple degrees of freedom. Applications include ordered states of matter and phase transitions. The three terms cover, approximately, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and phase transitions.
Instructors: Minnich, Fultz, Falson.

Ay 105.
Optical Astronomy Instrumentation Lab.
9 units (1-5-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ay 20.
An opportunity for astronomy and physics undergraduates (juniors and seniors) to gain firsthand experience with the basic instrumentation tools of modern optical and infrared astronomy. The 10 weekly lab experiments include radiometry measurements, geometrical optics, polarization, optical aberrations, spectroscopy, CCD characterization, vacuum and cryogenic technology, infrared detector technology, adaptive optics (wavefront sensors, deformable mirrors, closed loop control) and a coronography tuturial.
Instructor: Mawet.

BEM 105.
Options.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: One of the following: Ec 122, Ge/ESE 118, Ma 1/103, MA 112a, MA 112b, or instructor's permission; BEM 103 strongly recommended; some familiarity with differential equations is helpful.
An introduction to option pricing theory and risk management in the discrete-time, bi-nomial tree model, and the continuous time Black-Scholes-Merton framework. Both the partial differential equations approach and the martingale approach (risk-neutral pricing by expected values) will be developed. The course will cover the basics of Stochastic, Ito Calculus. Since 2015, the course is offered in the flipped format: the students are required to watch lectures online, while problem solving and case and paper presentations are done in class.
Instructor: Cvitanic.

Bi/Ge/ESE 105.
Evolution.
12 units (3-4-5):
second term.
Prerequisites: Completion of Core Curriculum Courses. Maximum enrollment: 15, by application only.
The theory of evolution is arguably biologyâ€™s greatest idea and serves as the overarching framework for thinking about the diversity and relationships between organisms. This course will present a broad picture of evolution starting with discussions of the insights of the great naturalists, the study of the genetic basis of variation, and an introduction to the key driving forces of evolution. Following these foundations, we will then focus on a number of case studies including the following: evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, origin of eukaryotes, multicellularity, influence of symbiosis, the emergence of life from the water (i.e. fins to limbs), the return of life to the water (i.e. limbs to fins), diversity following major extinction events, the discovery of Archaea, insights into evolution that have emerged from sequence analysis, and finally human evolution and the impact of humans on evolution (including examples such as antibiotic resistance). A specific focus for considering these issues will be the island biogeography of the Galapagos. Given in alternate years; offered 2021â€“22.
Instructors: Phillips, Orphan.

ChE 105.
Dynamics and Control of Chemical Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95 ab or concurrent registration, or instructor's permission.
Analysis of linear dynamic systems. Feedback control. Stability of closed-loop control systems. Root locus, Frequency response, and Nyquist analysis. Feedforward, cascade, and multivariable control systems.
Instructor: Seinfeld.

E/ME/MedE 105 ab.
Design for Freedom from Disability.
9 units (3-0-6):
terms to be arranged.
This Product Design class focuses on people with Disabilities and is done in collaboration with Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center. Students visit the Center to define products based upon actual stated and observed needs. Designs and testing are done in collaboration with Rancho associates. Speakers include people with assistive needs, therapists and researchers. Classes teach normative design methodologies as adapted for this special area. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: TBD.

Ec 105.
Firms, Competition, and Industrial Organization.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11 or equivalent.
A study of how technology affects issues of market structure and how market structure affects observable economic outcomes, such as prices, profits, advertising, and research and development expenditures. Emphasis will be on how the analytic tools developed in the course can be used to examine particular industries-especially those related to internet commerce-in detail. Each student is expected to write one substantial paper. Not offered 2021-2022.

EE 105 abc.
Electrical Engineering Seminar.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
All candidates for the M.S. degree in electrical engineering are required to attend any graduate seminar in any division each week of each term. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Emami.

En 105.
Old English Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
"MoÃ°Ã°e word frÃ¦t." Want to learn how to read the riddle that begins with these words? This course will introduce students to Old English: the earliest form of the English language, spoken in England from roughly the years 450 to 1100. In studying the language, we will turn to its diverse and exciting body of literature, including one poem commemorating the brutal defeat by a Viking army and another based on the biblical story of Judith, who tricks the evil king Holofernes into sleeping with her-but not before slicing off his drunken head. We will also read a variety of shorter texts: laws, medical recipes, humorously obscene riddles. Successful completion of the course will give students a richer sense not only of the earliest period of English literature, but also of the English language as it is written and spoken today. No prior experience with Old or Middle English is necessary for this course. Not offered 2021-2022.

Hum 105.
Topics in French Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with L 105. Hum 105 and Hum 101 taught in alternate years. Topics may include 20th-century major French novels, French modern theatre, conflicting memories of the second world war, coming-of-age novels, and the French Muslim identity. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in French may enroll in this class as L 105.
Instructor: Orcel.

L 105.
Topics in French Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: L 103 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with Hum 105. L 105 and L 101 taught in alternate years. Topics may include the 20th-century major French novels, French modern theatre, conflicting memories of the second world war, coming-of-age novels, and the French Muslim identity. Conducted in French. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 105, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement.
Instructor: Orcel.

Ph 105.
Analog Electronics for Physicists.
9 units:
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph1abc, Ma2, or equivalent.
A laboratory course intended for graduate students, it covers the design, construction, and testing of simple, practical analog and interface circuits useful for signal conditioning and experiment control in the laboratory. No prior experience with electronics is required. Students will use operational amplifiers, analog multipliers, diodes, bipolar transistors, and passive circuit elements. Each week includes a 45 minute lecture/recitation and a 2Â½ hour laboratory. The course culminates in a two-week project of the student's choosing.
Instructors: Rice, Libbrecht.

Psy/CNS 105 ab.
Frontiers in Neuroeconomics.
5 units (1.5-0-3.5):
second term.
The new discipline of Neuroeconomics seeks to understand the mechanisms underlying human choice behavior, born out of a confluence of approaches derived from Psychology, Neuroscience and Economics. This seminar will consider a variety of emerging themes in this new field. Some of the topics we will address include the neural bases of reward and motivation, the neural representation of utility and risk, neural systems for inter-temporal choice, goals vs habits, and strategic interactions. We will also spend time evaluating various forms of computational and theoretical models that underpin the field such as reinforcement-learning, Bayesian models and race to barrier models. Each week we will focus on key papers and/or book chapters illustrating the relevant concepts. Not offered 2021-2022.

ACM/EE 106 ab.
Introductory Methods of Computational Mathematics.
12 units (3-0-9):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: For ACM/EE 106a, Ma 1 abc, Ma 2, Ma 3, ACM 11; for ACM/EE 106b, ACM 95/100 ab or equivalent.
The sequence covers the introductory methods in both theory and implementation of numerical linear algebra, approximation theory, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. The linear algebra parts cover basic methods such as direct and iterative solution of large linear systems, including LU decomposition, splitting method (Jacobi iteration, Gauss-Seidel iteration); eigenvalue and vector computations including the power method, QR iteration and Lanczos iteration; nonlinear algebraic solvers. The approximation theory includes data fitting; interpolation using Fourier transform, orthogonal polynomials and splines; least square method, and numerical quadrature. The ODE parts include initial and boundary value problems. The PDE parts include finite difference and finite element for elliptic/parabolic/hyperbolic equations. Study of numerical PDE will include stability analysis. Programming is a significant part of the course.
Instructor: Hou.

BE/Bi 106.
Comparative Biomechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Have you ever wondered how a penguin swims or why a maple seed spins to the ground? How a flea can jump as high as a kangaroo? If spider silk is really stronger than steel? This class will offer answers to these and other questions related to the physical design of plants and animals. The course will provide a basic introduction to how engineering principles from the fields of solid and fluid mechanics may be applied to the study of biological systems. The course emphasizes the organismal level of complexity, although topics will relate to molecular, cell, and tissue mechanics. The class is explicitly comparative in nature and will not cover medically-related biomechanics. Topics include the physical properties of biological materials, viscoelasticity, muscle mechanics, biological pumps, and animal locomotion.
Instructor: Dickinson.

En 106.
Poetry and the Project of Justice.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course explores how contemporary poets grapple with the most urgent questions of our moment: identity, equality, environmental crisis, and justice. In this class, students will gain confidence in reading, discussing, and writing about contemporary poems and will encounter recent and more distant traditions of protest poetry. We will ask how poetic language articulates questions of embodiment, community, law, and memory. The syllabus will focus in particular on writers of color, including queer and indigenous poets, and will include opportunities to attend local poetry readings. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Jahner.

ESE 106.
Research in Environmental Science and Engineering.
Units by arrangement:
any term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Exploratory research for first-year graduate students and qualified undergraduates. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 106.
Introduction to Structural Geology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab.
Description and origin of main classes of deformational structures. Introduction to continuum mechanics and its application to rock deformation. Interpretation of the record of deformation of the earth's crust and upper mantle on microscopic, mesoscopic, and megascopic scales. Introduction to the tectonics of mountain belts.
Instructor: Avouac.

L 106 abc.
Elementary Japanese.
9 units (4-0-5):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Section a is required for sections b and c.
Emphasis on oral-aural skills, and understanding of basic grammar. Immediate introduction of the native script-hiragana, katakana-and gradual introduction to 300 to 500 characters.
Instructor: Fujio.

Ph 106 abc.
Topics in Classical Physics.
9 units (4-0-5):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 2 ab or Ph 12 abc, Ma 2.
An intermediate course in the application of basic principles of classical physics to a wide variety of subjects. Ph106a will be devoted to mechanics, including Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of mechanics, small oscillations and normal modes, central forces, and rigid-body motion. Ph106b will be devoted to fundamentals of electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics, including boundary-value problems, multipole expansions, electromagnetic waves, and radiation. It will also cover special relativity. Ph106c will cover advanced topics in electromagnetism and an introduction to classical optics.
Instructors: Fuller, Golwala.

Ay/Ge 107.
Introduction to Astronomical Observation.
9 units (1-1-7):
first term.
Prerequisites: CS1 or equivalent coding experience recommended.
This hands-on, project-based course covers the design, proposal, and execution of astronomical observations, the basics of data reduction and analysis, and interacting with astronomical survey catalogs. In the first module, students will learn to use small, portable telescopes and find and image objects of interest using finder charts. In the second module, students will use Palomar Observatory to propose and execute their own research projects focused on astrophysical or planetary topics. In the third module, students will query and work with data from on-line archives and catalogs. The scope of the course includes imaging and spectroscopic observational techniques at optical and infrared wavelengths. The format centers on projects and practical skills but also includes a lecture and problem set component to establish the theoretical underpinnings of the practical work. The course meets once a week in the evening, and there are 1-2 required field trips to Palomar Observatory.
Instructors: Hillenbrand, de Kleer.

BE 107.
Exploring Biological Principles Through Bio-Inspired Design.
9 units (3-5-1):
third term.
Prerequisites: none.
Students will formulate and implement an engineering project designed to explore a biological principle or property that is exhibited in nature. Students will work in small teams in which they build a hardware platform that is motivated by a biological example in which a given approach or architecture is used to implement a given behavior. Alternatively, the team will construct new experimental instruments in order to test for the presence of an engineering principle in a biological system. Example topics include bio-inspired control of motion (from bacteria to insects), processing of sensory information (molecules to neurons), and robustness/fault-tolerance. Each project will involve proposing a specific mechanism to be explored, designing an engineering system that can be used to demonstrate and evaluate the mechanism, and building a computer-controlled, electro-mechanical system in the lab that implements or characterizes the proposed mechanism, behavior or architecture. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Dickinson, Murray.

BEM 107.
Corporate Finance.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: BEM 103.
The main objective of the course is to develop insight into the process by which firms can create value for their shareholders. We will study major corporate decisions from the perspective of the firm with an emphasis on the interaction of the firm with financial markets: quantitative project evaluation for investment, choice between borrowing and issuing stock, dividend policy, organizational form (for example, mergers and acquisitions). Theory, empirical evidence, and case analysis all play significant roles in the course. Topics include discounted cash flow models, risk and return, capital asset pricing model, capital market efficiency, capital structure and the cost of capital and dividend policy.
Instructor: Ewens.

ChE/Ch/Bi/SEC 107.
Social Media for Scientists.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An introduction to the use of social media for scientific communication. Social media platforms are discussed in the context of their use to professionally engage scientific communities and general audiences. Topics will include ethics, privacy, reputation management, ownership and the law, and will focus on the use and impact of social media for personal and professional career development. Lectures will include presentations by invited experts in various specialties, a number of whom will have worldwide recognition. Not offered 2021-2022.

CMS/ACM/IDS 107.
Linear Analysis with Applications.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM/IDS 104 or equivalent, Ma 1 b or equivalent.
Covers the basic algebraic, geometric, and topological properties of normed linear spaces, inner-product spaces, and linear maps. Emphasis is placed both on rigorous mathematical development and on applications to control theory, data analysis and partial differential equations.
Instructor: Stuart.

En 107.
Medieval Romance.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The medieval term romanz designated both a language, French, and a genre, romance, dedicated to the adventures of knights and ladies and the villains, monsters, magic, and miles that stood in their way. This course explores key examples from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, while also examining evolutions in the form. We will consider how romances figured love and desire as well as negotiated questions of law, territory, and cultural difference. Authors and texts may include Chretien de Troyes, Marie de France, Gawain and the Green Knight, Arthurian legends, outlaw tales, and hagiography.
Instructor: Jahner.

ESL/Wr 107.
Fundamentals of Scientific Writing.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
This course provides guided instruction in academic writing in STEM fields. More specifically, it teaches graduate students about composing texts in scientific English for expert audiences. It helps familiarize writers with academic STEM discourse, and it teaches writers about the style and genres of U.S. academic STEM writing, helping them learn to locate, read, and write about the work of others in their field. From here, students learn to review the literature in their fields and situate their own research goals within that context. Students are encouraged to take ESL/Wr 107 in the first or second year of graduate school. This course is designed for non-native speakers of English, but it covers topics that are relevant to native English speakers.
Instructor: TBA.

H 107.
The Early Middle Ages.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course is designed to introduce students to the formative period of Western medieval history, from roughly 300 to 1000 CE. It will emphasize the development of a new civilization from the fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions, with a focus on the Frankish world. The course focuses on the reading, analysis, and discussion of primary sources. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Brown.

L 107 abc.
Intermediate Japanese.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 106 abc or equivalent.
Continued instruction and practice in conversation, building up vocabulary, and understanding complex sentence patterns. The emphasis, however, will be on developing reading skills. Recognition of approximately 1,000 characters.
Instructor: Hirai.

BEM 108.
Mathematical Models in Fintech.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Some knowledge of game theory and optimization is helpful, BEM 103 Introduction to Finance is recommended, and a calculus-based course in probability is required.
In this course we will go over recent works on topics broadly contained in the newly emerging field of Fintech. In particular, the topics include mathematical modeling of strategic actions of agents interacting via a blockchain technology, via crowdfunding platforms, and via online investment platforms ("robo-advisors"). Not offered 2021-2022.

CE/Ae/AM 108.
Computational Mechanics.
9 units (3-5-1):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/ME/CE 102 abc or Ae/GE/ME 160 ab, or instructor's permission.
Numerical methods and techniques for solving initial boundary value problems in continuum mechanics (from heat conduction to statics and dynamics of solids and structures). Finite difference methods, direct methods, variational methods, finite elements in small strains and at finite deformation for applications in structural mechanics and solid mechanics. Solution of the partial differential equations of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, and fluid mechanics. Transient and nonlinear problems. Computational aspects and development and use of finite element code. Not offered 2021â€“22.

Ec 108.
Foundations of Behavioral Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
In this course we will examine behavioral economics models in several key decision-making contexts: choice over time, choice under uncertainty, choice in market settings (i.e., buying and selling), and others. In each topic area we will begin by providing the standard neoclassical account for behavior, building from assumptions (axioms) to corresponding utility models. We will then ask whether critical axioms of neoclassical models are plausible by calling upon psychological insights and empirical data. Rejection of neoclassical axioms will lead to new models, behavioral economics models, in each setting. These models, mechanisms and their testable predictions will be discussed.
Instructor: Sprenger.

En/VC 108.
Volcanoes.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Long before torrents of lava cascaded down Los Angeles streets in the 1997 film Volcano, volcanic disaster narratives erupted across 19th-century British pages, stages, and screens. This class will examine the enduring fascination with volcanoes in literary and visual culture and the socio-political tensions that disaster narratives expose. Students will analyze Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Tambora's infamous 1815 eruption, James Pain's 1880s pyrotechnic adaptation of Vesuvius's 79AD eruption, and paintings of global sunsets after Krakatoa's 1883 eruption. Additional literary and visual texts may include works by: Felicia Hemans, Isabella Bird, M.P. Shiel, Charles Dickens, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, and J. M. W. Turner. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Sullivan.

ESL/Wr 108.
Intermediate Graduate Writing Seminar.
6 units (3-0-3):
summer term.
This course focuses on strategies for composing an academic journal article in a STEM field. The rhetorical purpose and form of each section of the journal article will be considered in depth. The course is intended for graduate students who are prepared to be a lead author on a manuscript. While the course will cover strategies for collaborative writing, students will be asked to draft sections of an original journal article based upon their own research. The course will also provide instruction on selecting a target journal, preparing a manuscript for submission, and responding to feedback from peer reviewers. Clarity in scientific writing and creating effective figures will also be discussed. This course is designed for non-native speakers of English, but it covers topics that are relevant to native English speakers. Course enrollment is limited to 15 students.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 108.
Applications of Physics to the Earth Sciences.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2 and Ma 2 or equivalent.
An intermediate course in the application of the basic principles of classical physics to the earth sciences. Topics will be selected from: mechanics of rotating bodies, the two-body problem, tidal theory, oscillations and normal modes, diffusion and heat transfer, wave propagation, electro- and magneto-statics, Maxwell's equations, and elements of statistical and fluid mechanics.
Instructor: Brown.

H 108.
The High Middle Ages.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course is designed to introduce students to European history between 1000 and 1400. It will provide a topical as well as chronological examination of the economic, social, political, and religious evolution of western Europe during this period, with a focus on France, Italy, England, and Germany. The course emphasizes the reading, analysis, and discussion of primary sources. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Brown.

L 108 abc.
Advanced Japanese.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: L 107 abc or equivalent.
Developing overall language skills. Literary and newspaper readings. Technical and scientific translation. Improvement of listening and speaking ability so as to communicate with Japanese people in real situations. Recognition of the 1,850 general-use characters.
Instructor: Hirai.

Ma 108 abc.
Classical Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 1 or equivalent, or instructorâ€™s permission. May be taken concurrently with Ma 109.
First term: structure of the real numbers, topology of metric spaces, a rigorous approach to differentiation in R^n. Second term: brief introduction to ordinary differential equations; Lebesgue integration and an introduction to Fourier analysis. Third term: the theory of functions of one complex variable.
Instructors: Dunn, Wu, Karpukhin.

ACM 109.
Mathematical Modelling.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites ACM 95/100 ab or equivalent. This course gives an overview of different mathematical models used to describe a variety of phenomena arising in the biological, engineering, physical and social sciences. Emphasis will be placed on the principles used to develop these models, and on the unity and cross-cutting nature of the mathematical and computational tools used to study them. Applications will include quantum, atomistic and continuum modeling of materials; epidemics, reacting-diffusing systems; crowd modeling and opinion formation. Mathematical tools will include ordinary, partial and stochastic differential equations, as well as Markov chains and other stochastic processes. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Stuart.

APh/EE 109.
Introduction to the Micro/Nanofabrication Lab.
9 units (0-6-3):
first, second, third terms.
Introduction to techniques of micro-and nanofabrication, including solid-state, optical, and microfluidic devices. Students will be trained to use fabrication and characterization equipment available in the applied physics micro- and nanofabrication lab. Topics include Schottky diodes, MOS capacitors, light-emitting diodes, microlenses, microfluidic valves and pumps, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-beam writing. Not offered first term in 2021-2022. Instructors for second/third terms: Troian, Ghaffari.

Ec 109.
Frontiers in Behavioral Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11.
This course will study topics in behavioral economics demonstrating departures from the classic economics assumptions of rationality and pure self-interest. We will study evidence of these departures, models that have been designed to capture these preferences, and applications of these models to important economic questions. Topics will include biases and heuristics, risk preferences, self-control, strategic uncertainty, and social preferences, among others. The course will be based in readings from both classic and modern research. Methodologically, the course will combine both theoretical and empirical evidence of the mentioned above topics.
Instructor: Nielsen.

En 109.
Madness and Reason.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Madness threatens to dissolve boundaries of the most various kinds: between the human and the inhumane, reality and fantasy, sickness and health. One of the tasks of a literary text is to subdue and contain madness through the construction of rational frameworks. How does a literary text accomplish this? Which strategies, such as the use of irony and humor, are the most effective? What role do insane characters play in literary texts? And when - if ever - should we consider an excess of reason as a kind of madness in its own right? Selected readings from Shakespeare, Voltaire, Goethe, Hoffmann, BÃ¼chner, Gogol, and Schnitzler, among others. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Holland.

Ge 109.
Oral Presentation.
Units to be arranged:
.
Practice in the effective organization and the delivery of oral presentation of scientific results before groups. Units and scheduling are done by the individual options. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

H 109.
Medieval Knighthood.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course tells the story of the knight from his beginnings in the early Middle Ages, through his zenith in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries, to his decline and transformation in the late medieval and early modern periods. The course treats the knight not simply as a military phenomenon but also as a social, political, religious, and cultural figure who personified many of the elements that set the Middle Ages apart.
Instructors: Brown, W.

L/VC 109.
Introduction to French Cinema from Its Beginning to the Present.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course will introduce students to the artistic style and the social, historical, and political content of French films, starting with Melies and the Lumiere brothers and working through surrealism and impressionism, 1930s poetic realism, the Occupation, the New Wave, the Cinema du look, and the contemporary cinema. The class will teach students to look at film as a medium with its own techniques and formal principles. Conducted in English.
Instructor: Orcel.

Ma 109 abc.
Introduction to Geometry and Topology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 2 or equivalent, and Ma 108 must be taken previously or concurrently.
First term: aspects of point set topology, and an introduction to geometric and algebraic methods in topology. Second term: the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space. Third term: an introduction to differentiable manifolds. Transversality, differential forms, and further related topics.
Instructors: Marcolli, Karpukhin, Smillie.

Wr 109.
Writing and Publishing Research Articles in STEM Fields.
6 units (3-0-3):
summer term.
This course focuses on strategies for composing an academic journal article in a STEM field. The rhetorical purpose and form of each section of the journal article will be considered in depth. The course is intended for graduate students who are prepared to be a lead author on a manuscript. While the course will cover strategies for collaborative writing, students will be asked to draft sections of an original journal article based upon their own research. The course will also provide instruction on selecting a target journal, preparing a manuscript for submission, and responding to feedback from peer reviewers. Clarity in scientific writing and creating effective figures will also be discussed. Course enrollment is limited to 15 students.
Instructor: Burkett.

APh 110.
Topics in Applied Physics.
2 units (2-0-0):
first, second terms.
A seminar course designed to acquaint advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students with the various research areas represented in the option. Lecture each week given by a different member of the APh faculty, who will review his or her field of research. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Bellan.

BEM 110.
Venture Capital.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: BEM 102, 103.
An introduction to the theory and practice of venture capital financing of start-ups. This course covers the underlying economic principles and theoretical models relevant to the venture investment process, as well as the standard practices used by industry and detailed examples. Topics include: The history of VC; VC stages of financing; financial returns to private equity; LBOs and MBOs; people versus ideas; biotech; IPOs; and CEO transitions.
Instructor: Ewens.

CDS 110.
Introduction to Feedback Control Systems.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1abc and Ma 2/102 or equivalents.
An introduction to analysinkis and design of feedback control systems, including classical control theory in the time and frequency domain. Input/output modeling of dynamical systems using differential equations and transfer functions. Stability and performance of interconnected systems, including use of block diagrams, Bode plots, the Nyquist criterion, and Lyapunov functions. Design of feedback controllers in state space and frequency domain based on stability, performance and robustness specifications.
Instructor: Seinfeld.

Ch/Bi 110.
Introduction to Biochemistry.
12 units (4-0-8):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc or instructor's permission.
Lectures and recitation introducing the molecular basis of life processes. Topics will include the structure and chemical properties of biological macromolecules, molecular biology methods, biological catalysis, and an overview of metabolism.
Instructor: Clemons.

E 110.
Principles of University Teaching and Learning in STEM.
3 units (2-0-1):
second, third terms.
This graduate course examines the research on university-level STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) teaching and learning, which has been used to inform a well-established body of evidence-based teaching practices. Weekly interactive meetings will provide focused overviews and guided application of key pedagogical research, such as prior knowledge and misconceptions, novice-expert differences, and cognitive development as applied to university teaching. We will explore the roles of active learning, student engagement, and inclusive teaching practices in designing classes where all students have an equal opportunity to be successful and feel a sense of belonging, both in the course and as scientists. Readings will inform in-class work and students will apply principles to a project of their choice.
Instructors: Horii, Weaver.

EE 110 abc.
Embedded Systems Design Laboratory.
9 units (3-4-2):
first, second, third terms.
The student will design, build, and program a specified microprocessor-based embedded system. This structured laboratory is organized to familiarize the student with large-scale digital and embedded system design, electronic circuit construction techniques, modern development facilities, and embedded systems programming. The lectures cover topics in embedded system design such as display technologies, interfacing to analog signals, communication protocols, PCB design, and programming in high-level and assembly languages. Given in alternate years; Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: George.

En/VC 110.
Sinners, Saints, and Sexuality in Premodern Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This class explores the history of sexuality and gender across the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Exploring both literary texts and visual representation, it considers how previous eras and cultures understood embodiment, sexuality, and gender and asks how we, as modern readers and viewers, approach these questions across the distance of centuries. We will read across a wide range of literature, including theology, philosophy, fiction, romance, and spiritual biography, and examine manuscript illustrations and other early visual media. Questions we will take up include the following: how did writers and artists construct the "naturalness" or "unnaturalness" of particular bodies and bodily acts? How did individuals understand the relationship between their own bodies and those of others? In what ways did writing and art authorize, scrutinize, or otherwise parse the boundaries of the licit and illicit? Finally, how have modern critics framed these questions? How do we approach and make use of earlier theories of sex and gender?
Instructor: Jahner.

ESE 110 abc.
Seminar in Environmental Science and Engineering.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
Required attendance by first year graduate students at the weekly ESE seminar, Wednesdays 4pm. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Callies.

HPS/Pl/CS 110.
Causation and Explanation.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An examination of theories of causation and explanation in philosophy and neighboring disciplines. Topics discussed may include probabilistic and counterfactual treatments of causation, the role of statistical evidence and experimentation in causal inference, and the deductive-nomological model of explanation. The treatment of these topics by important figures from the history of philosophy such as Aristotle, Descartes, and Hume may also be considered. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Eberhardt.

L 110 abc.
Elementary Spanish.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Grammar fundamentals and their use in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish. Exclusively for students with no previous knowledge of Spanish.
Instructors: Arjona, Garcia.

Ma 110 abc.
Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 108 or previous exposure to metric space topology, Lebesgue measure.
First term: integration theory and basic real analysis: topological spaces, Hilbert space basics, Fejer's theorem, measure theory, measures as functionals, product measures, L^p -spaces, Baire category, Hahn- Banach theorem, Alaoglu's theorem, Krein-Millman theorem, countably normed spaces, tempered distributions and the Fourier transform. Second term: basic complex analysis: analytic functions, conformal maps and fractional linear transformations, idea of Riemann surfaces, elementary and some special functions, infinite sums and products, entire and meromorphic functions, elliptic functions. Third term: harmonic analysis; operator theory. Harmonic analysis: maximal functions and the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem, the maximal and Birkoff ergodic theorems, harmonic and subharmonic functions, theory of H^p -spaces and boundary values of analytic functions. Operator theory: compact operators, trace and determinant on a Hilbert space, orthogonal polynomials, the spectral theorem for bounded operators. If time allows, the theory of commutative Banach algebras.
Instructors: Karpukhin, Rains, Radziwill.

ME 110.
Special Laboratory Work in Mechanical Engineering.
3-9 units per term:
maximum two terms.
Special laboratory work or experimental research projects may be arranged by members of the faculty to meet the needs of individual students as appropriate. A written report is required for each term of work.
Instructor: Staff.

MS 110 abc.
Materials Research Lectures.
1 unit (1-0-0):
first, second, third terms.
A seminar course designed to introduce advanced undergraduates and graduate students to modern research in materials science.
Instructors: Fultz, Faber, Bernardi.

Ay 111 ab.
Introduction to Current Astrophysics Research.
1 unit (1-0-0):
first, second, third terms.
This course is intended primarily for first-year Ay graduate students, although participation is open and encouraged. Students are required to attend seminar-style lectures given by astrophysics faculty members, describing their research, to attend the weekly astronomy colloquia, and to follow these with additional readings on the subject. At the end of each term, students are required to summarize in oral or written form (at the discretion of the instructor), one of the covered subjects that is of most interest to them.
Instructors: Djorgovski, Howard, Hopkins.

BEM 111.
Quantitative Risk and Portfolio Management.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: GE/ACM 118, BEM 105, or Ma 112.
Investors demand reward for taking risk. Concepts of Knightian risk and uncertainty; risk preference (risk-neutral Q vs. real-world P probability measures); coherent risk; and commonly used metrics for risk are explored. The integration of risk and reward in classical efficient portfolio construction is described, along with the drawbacks of this approach in practice and methods for addressing these drawbacks. The leptokurtic (fat-tailed) nature of financial data and approaches to modeling financial surprises are covered, leading to inherently leptokurtic techniques for estimating volatility and correlation. Scenario analysis, and regime-switching methods are shown to provide ways of dealing with risk in extreme environments. The special nature of modeling long/short portfolios (hedge funds) is explored. The text for the class is a Jupyter Notebook with Python code segments.
Instructor: Winston.

Ch/Bi 111.
Biochemistry of Gene Expression.
12 units (4-0-8):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch/Bi 110; Bi 8 and Bi 122 recommended.
Lectures and recitation on the molecular basis of biological structure and function. Emphasizes the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information in cells. Specific topics include DNA replication, recombination, repair and mutagenesis, transcription, RNA processing, and protein synthesis.
Instructors: Campbell, Parker.

ChE/ESE/ME/MS 111.
Sustainable Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: (ChE 62 and ChE 63 ab) or (ME 11 abc) or (Ph 2 c and MS 115) or Instructor's permission.
Examines the Earth's resources including fresh water, nitrogen, carbon and other biogeochemical cycles that impose planetary constraints on engineering; systems approaches to sustainable development goals; fossil fuel formation, chemical composition, production and use; engineering challenges and opportunities in decarbonizing energy, transportation and industry; global flows of critical elements used in zero-carbon energy systems; food-water-energy nexus; analysis of regional and local systems to model effects of human activities on air, water and soil.
Instructor: Kornfield.

CS 111.
Graduate Programming Practicum.
3 units (0-3-0):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: CS 1 or equivalent.
A self-paced lab that provides students with extra practice and supervision in transferring their programming skills to a particular programming language. The course can be used for any language of the student's choosing, subject to approval by the instructor. A series of exercises guide the student through the pragmatic use of the chosen language, building his or her familiarity, experience, and style. More advanced students may propose their own programming project as the target demonstration of their new language skills. This course is available for graduate students only. CS 111 may be repeated for credit of up to a total of nine units. Undergraduates should register for CS 11.
Instructors: Blank, Vanier.

EE 111.
Signal-Processing Systems and Transforms.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1.
An introduction to continuous and discrete time signals and systems with emphasis on digital signal processing systems. Study of the Fourier transform, Fourier series, z-transforms, and the fast Fourier transform as applied in electrical engineering. Sampling theorems for continuous to discrete-time conversion. Difference equations for digital signal processing systems, digital system realizations with block diagrams, analysis of transient and steady state responses, and connections to other areas in science and engineering.
Instructor: Vaidyanathan.

En 111.
Violence and Reconciliation on the Shakespearean Stage.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Sir Francis Bacon famously described revenge as a "wild justice," and there are vivid examples of such justice in the drama of Shakespeare and his contemporaries: revenge for political betrayal and tyranny, for sexual infidelities and desires, for religious misbehavior and dogmatism. But what of the experience of reconciliation on the Shakespearean stage? What pathways to concord and peace did these plays offer? This course explores the relationship of violence to the fleeting experience of reconciliation in early modern drama. The plays of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Jonson, Middleton, and Dryden allow us to consider how drama as text and performance engaged and continues to engage playgoers as they watch the religious, social, and political upheaval of their worlds mounted to the stage. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Koch.

Ge 111 ab.
Applied Geophysics Seminar and Field Course.
6 units (3-3-0); second term. Prerequisite: instructorâ€™s permission. 9 units (0-3-6); spring break, third term. Prerequisite: Ge 111 a:
.
An introduction to the theory and application of basic geophysical field techniques consisting of a comprehensive survey of a particular field area using a variety of methods (e.g., gravity, magnetic, electrical, GPS, seismic studies, and satellite remote sensing). The course will consist of a seminar that will discuss the scientific background for the chosen field area, along with the theoretical basis and implementation of the various measurement techniques. The 4-5-day field component will be held in spring break, and the data analysis component is covered in Ge 111 b. May be repeated for credit with an instructorâ€™s permission.
Instructors: Clayton, Simons.

H 111.
The Medieval Church.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course takes students through the history of the medieval Christian Church in Europe, from its roots in Roman Palestine, through the zenith of its power in the high Middle Ages, to its decline on the eve of the Reformation. The course focuses on the church less as a religion (although it will by necessity deal with some basic theology) than as an institution that came to have an enormous political, social, cultural, and economic impact on medieval life, and for a brief time made Rome once more the mistress of Europe.
Instructors: Brown, W.

Ma 111 abc.
Topics in Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 110 or instructor's permission.
This course will discuss advanced topics in analysis, which vary from year to year. Topics from previous years include potential theory, bounded analytic functions in the unit disk, probabilistic and combinatorial methods in analysis, operator theory, C*-algebras, functional analysis. The third term will cover special functions: gamma functions, hypergeometric functions, beta/Selberg integrals and $q$-analogues. Time permitting: orthogonal polynomials, Painleve transcendents and/or elliptic analogues. Part a (first term) and part b (second term) will not be offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Katz.

SEC 111.
Effective Communication Strategies for Engineers and Scientists.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: none.
This graduate course is designed to increase students' effectiveness in communicating complex technical information to diverse audiences and to deepen their understanding of key tools and techniques. Students will explore scientific storytelling through multiple genres, including oral presentations, written articles, and visual narratives. In-class workshops will provide students with the opportunity to revise their work and consider feedback from others. Each student will complete the class with a portfolio of projects highlighting various aspects of their communication skills. (Registration by application only, and EAS graduate students are given priority.)
Instructor: Javier.

APh/Ph 112 ab.
Noise and Stochastic Resonance.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 12 abc, ACM 95/100 ab and Ph 106 abc, equivalent background, or instructor's permission.
The presence of noise in experimental systems is often regarded as a nuisance since it diminishes the signal to noise ratio thereby obfuscating weak signals or patterns. From a theoretical perspective, noise is also problematic since its influence cannot be elicited from deterministic equations but requires stochastic-based modeling which incorporates various types of noise and correlation functions. In general, extraction of embedded information requires that a threshold be overcome in order to outweigh concealment by noise. However, even below threshold, it has been demonstrated in numerous systems that external forcing coupled with noise can actually boost very weak signatures beyond threshold by a phenomenon known as stochastic resonance. Although it was originally demonstrated in nonlinear systems, more recent studies have revealed this phenomenon can occur in linear systems subject, for example, to color-based noise. Techniques for optimizing stochastic resonance are now revolutionizing modeling and measurement theory in many fields ranging from nonlinear optics and electrical systems to condensed matter physics, neurophysiology, hydrodynamics, climate research and even finance. This course will be conducted in survey and seminar style and is expected to appeal to theorists and experimentalists alike. Review of the current literature will be complimented by background readings and lectures on statistical physics and stochastic processes as needed.
Instructor: Troian.

BEM 112.
International Financial Markets.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: BEM 103 or instructor permission.
The course offers an introduction to international financial markets, their comparative behavior, and their inter-relations. The principal focus will be on assets traded in liquid markets: currencies, equities, bonds, swaps, and other derivatives. Attention will be devoted to (1) institutional arrangements, taxation, and regulation, (2) international arbitrage and parity conditions, (3) valuation, (4) international diversification and portfolio management, (5) derivative instruments, (6) hedging, (7) dynamic investment strategies, (8) other topics of particular current relevance and importance. Not offered 2021-2022.

CDS 112.
Optimal Control and Estimation.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CDS 110 (or equivalent) and CDS 131.
Optimization-based design of control systems, including optimal control and receding horizon control. Introductory random processes and optimal estimation. Kalman filtering and nonlinear filtering methods for autonomous systems.
Instructor: Murray.

CE/ME 112 ab.
Hydraulic Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME 11 abc, ME 12 abc; ACM 95/100 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
A survey of topics in hydraulic engineering: open channel and pipe flow, subcritical/critical flow and the hydraulic jump, hydraulic structures (weirs, inlet and outlet works, dams), hydraulic machinery, hydrology, river and flood modeling, solute transport, sediment mechanics, groundwater flow. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 112.
Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 102 or instructor's permission.
Introduction to group theory, ligand field theory, and bonding in coordination complexes and organotransition metal compounds. Systematics of bonding, reactivity, and spectroscopy of commonly encountered classes of transition metal compounds.
Instructor: Agapie.

ChE/BE/MedE 112.
Creativity and Technological Innovation with Microfluidic Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course combines three parts. First, it will cover fundamental aspects of kinetics, mass-transport, and fluid physics that are relevant to microfluidic systems. Second, it will provide an understanding of how new technologies are invented and reduced to practice. Finally, students in the course will work together to design microfluidic systems that address challenges in Global Health, with an emphasis on students' inventive contributions and creativity. Students will be encouraged and helped, but not required, to develop their inventions further by working with OTT and entrepreneurial resources on campus. Participants in this course benefit from enrollment of students with diverse backgrounds and interests. For chemical engineers, suggested but not required courses are ChE 101 (Chemical Reaction Engineering) and ChE 103 abc (Transport Phenomena). Students are encouraged to contact the instructor to discuss enrollment.
Instructor: Ismagilov.

Ec/ACM/CS 112.
Bayesian Statistics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3, ACM/EE/IDS 116 or equivalent.
This course provides an introduction to Bayesian Statistics and its applications to data analysis in various fields. Topics include: discrete models, regression models, hierarchical models, model comparison, and MCMC methods. The course combines an introduction to basic theory with a hands-on emphasis on learning how to use these methods in practice so that students can apply them in their own work. Previous familiarity with frequentist statistics is useful but not required.
Instructor: Rangel.

EE 112.
Introduction to Signal Processing from Data.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: EE 111 or equivalent. Math 3 recommended.
Fundamentals of digital signal processing, extracting information from data by linear filtering, recursive and non-recursive filters, structural and flow graph representations for filters, data-adaptive filtering, multrirate sampling, efficient data representations with filter banks, Nyquist and sub-Nyquist sampling, sensor array signal processing, estimating direction of arrival (DOA) information from noisy data, and spectrum estimation.
Instructor: Vaidyanathan.

En 112.
Nineteenth-Century American Poetry.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
In the 1855 edition of "Leaves of Grass", Walt Whitman claimed that "the United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem." We might ask any number of questions in response to Whitman. If the United States are a poem, then who wrote it? What is this poem about? What genre is it? Is anyone reading it? Is it actually any good? Though we might approach Whitman's statement with some apprehension from our historical moment, this course will take seriously American life lived within poetry and the lives poems lived across the country. Together, we will track the development of American poetry as it engages with enslavement, abolition, genocide, war, beauty, nature, racialization, constructions of gender, sexuality, and affect. Ultimately, we will ask what reading nineteenth-century American poetry, or nineteenth-century America as a poem, might mean for our understanding of the country today. Readings will include Wheatley, Emerson, Bryant, Poe, Longfellow, Oakes Smith, Schoolcraft (Bamewawagezhikaquay), Whitman, Dickinson, Harper, and Dunbar amongst others.
Instructor: Hill.

Ge 112.
Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.
12 units (3-5-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab.
Systematic analysis of transport and deposition in sedimentary environments and the resulting composition, texture, and structure of both clastic and chemical sedimentary rocks. The nature and genesis of sequence architecture of sedimentary basins and cyclic aspects of sedimentary accumulation will be introduced. Covers the formal and practical principles of definition of stratigraphic units, correlation, and the construction of a geologic timescale. Field trip and laboratory exercises. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Grotzinger.

H 112.
The Vikings.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course will take on the Scandinavian seafaring warriors of the 8th-11th centuries as a historical problem. What were the Vikings, where did they come from, and how they did they differ from the Scandinavian and north German pirates and raiders who preceded them? Were they really the horned-helmeted, bloodthirsty barbarians depicted by modern popular media and by many medieval chronicles? What effect did they have in their roughly two centuries of raiding and colonization on the civilizations of medieval and ultimately modern Europe? Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Brown, W.

L 112 abc.
Intermediate Spanish.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 110 abc or equivalent.
Grammar review, vocabulary building, practice in conversation, and introduction to relevant history, literature, and culture. Literary reading and writing are emphasized in the second and third terms. Students who have studied Spanish elsewhere must consult with the instructor before registering.
Instructor: Garcia.

Ma 112 ab.
Statistics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2 a probability and statistics or equivalent.
The first term covers general methods of testing hypotheses and constructing confidence sets, including regression analysis, analysis of variance, and nonparametric methods. The second term covers permutation methods and the bootstrap, point estimation, Bayes methods, and multistage sampling. Not offered 2021-22.

CMS/ACM/IDS 113.
Mathematical Optimization.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM 11 and ACM 104, or instructor's permission.
This class studies mathematical optimization from the viewpoint of convexity. Topics covered include duality and representation of convex sets; linear and semidefinite programming; connections to discrete, network, and robust optimization; relaxation methods for intractable problems; as well as applications to problems arising in graphs and networks, information theory, control, signal processing, and other engineering disciplines.
Instructor: Chandrasekaran.

EE 113.
Feedback and Control Circuits.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE 45 or equivalent.
This class studies the design and implementation of feedback and control circuits. The course begins with an introduction to basic feedback circuits, using both op amps and transistors. These circuits are used to study feedback principles, including circuit topologies, stability, and compensation. Following this, basic control techniques and circuits are studied, including PID (Proportional-Integrated-Derivative) control, digital control, and fuzzy control. There is a significant laboratory component to this course, in which the student will be expected to design, build, analyze, test, and measure the circuits and systems discussed in the lectures.
Instructor: George.

En 113.
Shakespeare's Career: Comedies and Histories.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The first of a two-course sequence on Shakespeare's career as a dramatist and poet. We will read plays from the first half of Shakespeare's career, his comedies and histories. Particular attention will be paid to Shakespeare's use of his sources and to the textual history of the plays. En 113 and En 114 may be taken independently and, usually, are taught in alternate years.
Instructor: Pigman.

APh 114 abc.
Solid-State Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 abc or equivalent.
Introductory lecture and problem course dealing with experimental and theoretical problems in solid-state physics. Topics include crystal structure, symmetries in solids, lattice vibrations, electronic states in solids, transport phenomena, semiconductors, superconductivity, magnetism, ferroelectricity, defects, and optical phenomena in solids.
Instructors: Nadj-Perge, Schwab.

Bi 114.
Immunology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, Bi 9, Bi 122 or equivalent, and Ch/Bi 110 recommended.
The course will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate recognition and response in the mammalian immune system. Topics include cellular and humoral immunity, the structural basis of immune recognition, antigen presentation and processing, gene rearrangement of lymphocyte receptors, cytokines and the regulation of cellular responses, T and B cell development, and mechanisms of tolerance. The course will present an integrated view of how the immune system interacts with viral and bacterial pathogens and commensal bacteria. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Bjorkman, Mazmanian.

ChE 114.
Solid State NMR Spectroscopy For Materials Chemistry.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch 21abc or instructor's permission.
Principles and applications of solid state NMR spectroscopy will be addressed with focus on structure and dynamics characterization of organic and inorganic solids. NMR characterization methods in the areas of heterogeneous catalysts, batteries, energy storage materials, etc. will be reviewed. More specific topics include NMR methods in solid state such as magic angle spinning (MAS), cross-polarization (CP), NMR of quadrupole nuclei, multiple pulse and multi-dimensional solid state NMR experiments, dynamics NMR. Hands-on experience will be provided via separate laboratory sessions using solid NMR spectrometers at Caltech Solid State NMR facility.
Instructor: Hwang.

EE/MedE 114 ab.
Analog Circuit Design.
12 units (4-0-8):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: EE 44 or equivalent.
Analysis and design of analog circuits at the transistor level. Emphasis on design-oriented analysis, quantitative performance measures, and practical circuit limitations. Circuit performance evaluated by hand calculations and computer simulations. Recommended for juniors, seniors, and graduate students. Topics include: review of physics of bipolar and MOS transistors, low-frequency behavior of single-stage and multistage amplifiers, current sources, active loads, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers, high-frequency circuit analysis using time- and transfer constants, high-frequency response of amplifiers, feedback in electronic circuits, stability of feedback amplifiers, and noise in electronic circuits, and supply and temperature independent biasing. A number of the following topics will be covered each year: trans-linear circuits, switched capacitor circuits, data conversion circuits (A/D and D/A), continuous-time Gm.C filters, phase locked loops, oscillators, and modulators. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hajimiri.

En 114.
Shakespeare's Career: Tragedies and Tragicomedies.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The second of a two-course sequence on Shakespeare's career as a dramatist and poet. We will read works from the second half of Shakespeare's career, his tragedies, tragicomedies, and Sonnets. Particular attention will be paid to Shakespeare's use of his sources and to the textual history of the plays. En 113 and En 114 may be taken independently and, usually, are taught in alternate years. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Pigman.

Ge 114 a.
Mineralogy.
9 units (3-4-2):
first term.
Atomic structure, composition, physical properties, occurrence, and identifying characteristics of the major mineral groups. The laboratory work involves the characterization and identification of important minerals by their physical properties.
Instructor: Rossman.

Ge 114 b.
Mineralogy Laboratory.
3 units (0-2-1):
first term.
Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in Ge 114 a or instructor's permission.
Additional laboratory studies of optical crystallography, the use of the petrographic microscope, and optical methods of mineral identification. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Rossman.

Hum 114.
Spanish Language Literature and its Film Adaptations.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 112 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with L 114. This course explores canonical Spanish literary works and their film adaptations, from the Renaissance to the present, through an array of male and female authors and directors from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Conducted in Spanish. Students who write papers in Spanish may enroll in this class as L 114.
Instructor: Arjona.

L 114.
Spanish Language Literature and its Film Adaptations.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 112 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with Hum 114. This course explores canonical Spanish literary works and their film adaptations, from the Renaissance to the present, through an array of male and female authors and directors from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Conducted in Spanish. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as humanities, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement.
Instructor: Arjona.

Ae 115 ab.
Spacecraft Navigation.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: CDS 110 a.
This course will survey all aspects of modern spacecraft navigation, including astrodynamics, tracking systems for both low-Earth and deep-space applications (including the Global Positioning System and the Deep Space Network observables), and the statistical orbit determination problem (in both the batch and sequential Kalman filter implementations). The course will describe some of the scientific applications directly derived from precision orbital knowledge, such as planetary gravity field and topography modeling. Numerous examples drawn from actual missions as navigated at JPL will be discussed. Not offered 2021-2022.

APh/Ph 115.
Physics of Momentum Transport in Hydrodynamic Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95 or equivalent.
Contemporary research in many areas of physics requires some knowledge of the principles governing hydrodynamic phenomena such as nonlinear wave propagation, symmetry breaking in pattern forming systems, phase transitions in fluids, Langevin dynamics, micro- and optofluidic control, and biological transport at low Reynolds number. This course offers students of pure and applied physics a self-contained treatment of the fundamentals of momentum transport in hydrodynamic systems. Mathematical techniques will include formalized dimensional analysis and rescaling, asymptotic analysis to identify dominant force balances, similitude, self-similarity and perturbation analysis for examining unidirectional and Stokes flow, pulsatile flows, capillary phenomena, spreading films, oscillatory flows, and linearly unstable flows leading to pattern formation. Students must have working knowledge of vector calculus, ODEs, PDEs, complex variables and basic tensor analysis. Advanced solution methods will be taught in class as needed. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Troian.

Bi/BE/BMB 115.
Viruses and Applications to Biological Systems.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Learn about viruses as fascinating biological machines, focusing on naturally-occurring and evolved variants, in silico viral vector engineering, and computational methods that include structure visualization and machine learning. This course will introduce the fundamentals in the chemistry and biology of viruses, emphasizing their engineerable properties for use in basic research and translational applications. Topics include: viruses by the numbers, mammalian and non-mammalian (plant, bacteria) viruses, enveloped vs. non-enveloped viruses, host-virus interactions, viral life cycles (replication vs. dormancy), immune responses to viruses, zoonosis, diverse mechanisms of entry and replication, the application of viruses as gene-delivery vehicles (with a focus on adeno-associated viruses or AAVs, lentiviruses, and rabies), and how to engineer viral properties for applications in basic research and gene therapy. The lectures will be complemented by short lab exercises in AAV preparation, bioinformatics and machine learning, and structure visualization. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructors: Bjorkman, Gradinaru, Van Valen.

ChE 115.
Electronic Materials Processing.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 103 abc, ChE 101, or instructor's permission.
Introduction into the gas-phase processing techniques used in the fabrication of electronic materials and devices. Kinetic theory of gases. Surface chemistry and gas-surface interaction dynamics. Film deposition techniques: physical and chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer epitaxy, liquid-phase epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy. Introduction into plasmas and their role in patterned etching and layer deposition. Charging damage during plasma processing. Determination of key parameters that control the ion energy and flux to the wafer surface. Not offered 2021-2022.

CS 115.
Functional Programming.
9 units (3-4-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 1 and CS 4.
This course is a both a theoretical and practical introduction to functional programming, a paradigm which allows programmers to work at an extremely high level of abstraction while simultaneously avoiding large classes of bugs that plague more conventional imperative and object-oriented languages. The course will introduce and use the lazy functional language Haskell exclusively. Topics include: recursion, first-class functions, higher-order functions, algebraic data types, polymorphic types, function composition, point-free style, proving functions correct, lazy evaluation, pattern matching, lexical scoping, type classes, and modules. Some advanced topics such as monad transformers, parser combinators, dynamic typing, and existential types are also covered.
Instructor: Vanier.

EE/MedE 115.
Micro-/Nano-scales Electro-Optics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Introductory electromagnetic class and consent of the instructor.
The course will cover various electro-optical phenomena and devices in the micro-/nano-scales. We will discuss basic properties of light, imaging, aberrations, eyes, detectors, lasers, micro-optical components and systems, scalar diffraction theory, interference/interferometers, holography, dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, and various Raman techniques. Topics may vary. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 115 a.
Petrology and Petrography: Igneous Petrology.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ge 114 ab.
Study of the origin, occurrence, tectonic significance and evolution of igneous rocks with emphasis on use of phase equilibria and geochemistry. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Stolper.

Ge 115 b.
Petrology and Petrography: Metamorphic Petrology.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 114 ab.
The mineralogic and chemical composition, occurrence, and classification of metamorphic rocks; interpretation of mineral assemblages in the light of chemical equilibrium and experimental studies. Discussion centers on the use of metamorphic assemblages to understand tectonic, petrologic, and geochemical problems associated with convergent plate boundaries and intrusion of magmas into the continental crust. May be taken before Ge 115 a. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Eiler.

Ge 115 c.
Petrography Laboratory.
6 units (0-4-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 114 and either Ge 115 a or Ge 115 b.
Laboratory exercises dealing with examination of igneous and metamorphic rocks and minerals in hand-sample and with the petrographic microscope and other mineral identification methods. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Hum 115.
Hispanic Cultures in Film and Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 112 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with L 115. This course introduces students to narrative film and literature from the Hispanic world, with an emphasis on the hero figure. It also takes up hybridization and transculturation in the Americas, specifically in Mexico, Peru, and Cuba, as well as film and narratives of Spain from the Civil War to the present. Conducted in Spanish. Students who write papers in Spanish may enroll in this class as L 115. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Garcia.

L 115.
Hispanic Cultures in Film and Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 112 abc or equivalent.
Offered concurrently with Hum 115. This course introduces students to narrative film and literature from the Hispanic world, with an emphasis on the hero figure. It also takes up hybridization and transculturation in the Americas, specifically in Mexico, Peru, and Cuba, as well as film and narratives of Spain from the Civil War to the present. Conducted in Spanish. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 115, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Garcia.

ME 115 ab.
Introduction to Kinematics and Robotics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, ACM 95/100 ab recommended.
Introduction to the study of planar, rotational, and spatial motions with applications to robotics, computers, computer graphics, and mechanics. Topics in kinematic analysis will include screw theory, rotational representations, matrix groups, and Lie algebras. Applications include robot kinematics, mobility in mechanisms, and kinematics of open and closed chain mechanisms. Additional topics in robotics include path planning for robot manipulators, dynamics and control, and assembly. Course work will include laboratory demonstrations using simple robot manipulators. Not offered 2021-22.

MS 115.
Fundamentals of Materials Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2.
An introduction to the structure and properties of materials and the processing routes utilized to optimize properties. All major classes of materials are covered, including metals, ceramics, electronic materials, composites, and polymers. The relationships between chemical bonding, crystal structure, defects, thermodynamics, phase equilibria, microstructure, and properties are described.
Instructor: Faber.

Psy 115.
Social Psychology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The study of how people think about other people and behave toward or around others. Topics include social cognition and emotions (theory of mind and empathy), their development from childhood to old age, impairments in social functions, altruism and cooperation, social groups (ingroup and outgroup), attribution and stereotypes. The class also presents evidence on how these social phenomena are implemented in the human brain and introduces behavioral and neuroscientific methods used in social psychology and social neuroscience.
Instructor: Rusch.

ACM/EE/IDS 116.
Introduction to Probability Models.
9 units (3-1-5):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3 or EE 55, some familiarity with MATLAB, e.g. ACM 11, is desired.
This course introduces students to the fundamental concepts, methods, and models of applied probability and stochastic processes. The course is application oriented and focuses on the development of probabilistic thinking and intuitive feel of the subject rather than on a more traditional formal approach based on measure theory. The main goal is to equip science and engineering students with necessary probabilistic tools they can use in future studies and research. Topics covered include sample spaces, events, probabilities of events, discrete and continuous random variables, expectation, variance, correlation, joint and marginal distributions, independence, moment generating functions, law of large numbers, central limit theorem, random vectors and matrices, random graphs, Gaussian vectors, branching, Poisson, and counting processes, general discrete- and continuous-timed processes, auto- and cross-correlation functions, stationary processes, power spectral densities.
Instructor: Zuev.

APh/Ph/Ae 116.
Physics of Thermal and Mass Transport in Hydrodynamic Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95 or equivalent and APh/Ph 115 or equivalent.
Contemporary research in many areas of physics requires some knowledge of how momentum transport in fluids couples to diffusive phenomena driven by thermal or concentration gradients. This course will first examine processes driven purely by diffusion and progress toward description of systems governed by steady and unsteady convection-diffusion and reaction-diffusion. Topics will include Fickian dynamics, thermal transfer in Peltier devices, Lifshitz-Slyozov growth during phase separation, thermocouple measurements of oscillatory fields, reaction-diffusion phenomena in biophysical systems, buoyancy driven flows, and boundary layer formation. Students must have working knowledge of vector calculus, ODEs, PDEs, complex variables and basic tensor analysis. Advanced solution methods such as singular perturbation, Sturm-Liouville and Green's function analysis will be taught in class as needed. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Troian.

Bi 116.
Microbial Genetics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 1, 8, 9 (or equivalent), and ESE/Bi 166.
A course on microbial genetics, emphasizing the history of the discipline as well as modern approaches. Students will be exposed to different ways of manipulating microbial genomes (primarily bacterial, but we will also cover archaea and microbial eukaryotes). The power of microbial genetics to shed light on diverse process will be discussed in a variety of contexts, ranging from environmental science to the mammalian microbiome. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructors: Mazmanian, Newman.

CS 116.
Reasoning about Program Correctness.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: CS 1 or equivalent.
This course presents the use of logic and formal reasoning to prove the correctness of sequential and concurrent programs. Topics in logic include propositional logic, basics of first-order logic, and the use of logic notations for specifying programs. The course presents a programming notation and its formal semantics, Hoare logic and its use in proving program correctness, predicate transformers and weakest preconditions, and fixed-point theory and its application to proofs of programs. Not offered 2021-2022

Ge 116.
Analytical Techniques Laboratory.
9 units (1-4-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ge 114 a or instructor's permission.
Methods of quantitative laboratory analysis of rocks, minerals, and fluids in geological and planetary sciences. Consists of five intensive two-week modules covering scanning electron microscopy (imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction); the electron microprobe (wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy); X-ray powder diffraction; optical, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy; and plasma source mass spectrometry for elemental and radiogenic isotope analysis. Satisfies the Institute core requirement for an additional introductory laboratory course.
Instructors: Asimow, Jackson, Rossman.

Ma 116 abc.
Mathematical Logic and Axiomatic Set Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
First term: Introduction to first-order logic and model theory. The Godel Completeness Theorem and the Completeness Theorem. Definability, elementary equivalence, complete theories, categoricity. The Skolem-Lowenheim Theorems. The back and forth method and Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games. Farisse theory. Elimination of quantifiers, applications to algebra and further related topics if time permits. Second and third terms: Axiomatic set theory, ordinals and cardinals, the Axiom of Choice and the Continuum Hypothesis. Models of set theory, independence and consistency results. Topics in descriptive set theory, combinatorial set theory and large cardinals.
Instructor: Vidnyanszky.

MS/ME/MedE 116.
Mechanical Behavior of Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Introduction to the mechanical behavior of solids, emphasizing the relationships between microstructure, architecture, defects, and mechanical properties. Elastic, inelastic, and plastic properties of crystalline and amorphous materials. Relations between stress and strains for different types of materials. Introduction to dislocation theory, motion and forces on dislocations, strengthening mechanisms in crystalline solids. Nanomaterials: properties, fabrication, and mechanics. Architected solids: fabrication, deformation, failure, and energy absorption. Biomaterials: mechanical properties of composites, multi-scale microstructure, biological vs. synthetic, shear lag model. Fracture in brittle solids and linear elastic fracture mechanics.
Instructor: Greer.

BEM 117.
Behavioral Finance.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Students are recommended (but not required) to take BEM 103 to become familiar with some basic concepts in finance.
Much of modern financial economics works with models in which agents are fully rational, in that they maximize expected utility and use Bayes' law to update their beliefs. Behavioral finance is a large and active field that develops and studies models in which some agents are less than fully rational. Such models have two building blocks: limits to arbitrage, which makes it difficult for rational traders to undo the dislocations caused by less rational traders; and psychology, which provides guidance for the kinds of deviations from full rationality we might expect to see. We discuss these two topics and consider a number of applications: asset pricing; individual trading behavior; the origin of bubbles; and financial crises.
Instructor: Jin.

Bi 117.
Developmental Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8 and Bi 9.
A survey of the development of multicellular organisms. Topics will include the beginning of a new organism (fertilization), the creation of multicellularity (cellularization, cleavage), reorganization into germ layers (gastrulation), induction of the nervous system (neurulation), and creation of specific organs (organogenesis). Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenetic movements, differentiation, and interactions during development, covering both classical and modern approaches to studying these processes.
Instructors: Bronner, Zernicka-Goetz.

Ch 117.
Introduction to Electrochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Discussion of the fundamentals and applications of electrochemistry with an emphasis on the structure of electrode-electrolyte interfaces, the mechanism by which charge is transferred across it, experimental techniques used to study electrode reactions, and application of electrochemical techniques to study materials chemistry. Topics may vary but usually include diffusion, cyclic voltammetry, coulometry, irreversible electrode reactions, the electrical double layer, and kinetics of electrode processes.
Instructor: See.

CMS/ACM 117.
Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM/IDS 104, ACM/EE/IDS 116 or instructor's permission.
This course offers a rigorous introduction to probability and stochastic processes. Emphasis is placed on the interaction between inequalities and limit theorems, as well as contemporary applications in computing and mathematical sciences. Topics include probability measures, random variables and expectation, independence, concentration inequalities, distances between probability measures, modes of convergence, laws of large numbers and central limit theorem, Gaussian and Poisson approximation, conditional expectation and conditional distributions, filtrations, and discrete-time martingales.
Instructor: Tropp.

Ec 117.
Matching Markets.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
We will tackle the fundamental question of how to allocate resources and organize exchange in the absence of prices. Examples includes finding a partner, allocating students to schools, and matching donors to patients in the context of organ transplantations. While the main focus will be on formal models, we will also reason about the practical implications of the theory.
Instructor: Pomatto.

En/VC 117.
Picturing the Universe.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Whether you are a physicist, photographer, or bibliophile, grab a warm jacket. The night sky beckons. In addition to observing and photographing our own starry skies, we will study 19th-century literary, artistic, and scientific responses to new understandings of the universe as dynamic, decentered, and limitless. In Victorian England, picturing the universe in literature and recording celestial light in photographs defied the physiological limitations of human observation and fueled larger debates about objective evidence and subjective documentation. Authors studied may include: Anna Laetitia Aikin, Keats, Byron, Tennyson, Hardy, Agnes Clerke, E. E. Barnard, Tracy Smith, and Dava Sobel.
Instructor: Sullivan.

Ge/Ay 117.
Bayesian Statistics and Data Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CS1 or equivalent.
In modern fields of planetary science and astronomy, vast quantities of data are often available to researchers. The challenge is converting this information into meaningful knowledge about the universe. The primary focus of this course is the development of a broad and general tool set that can be applied to the student's own research. We will use case studies from the astrophysical and planetary science literature as our guide as we learn about common pitfalls, explore strategies for data analysis, understand how to select the best model for the task at hand, and learn the importance of properly quantifying and reporting the level of confidence in one's conclusions.
Instructor: Knutson.

Ma/CS 117 abc.
Computability Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Various approaches to computability theory, e.g., Turing machines, recursive functions, Markov algorithms; proof of their equivalence. Church's thesis. Theory of computable functions and effectively enumerable sets. Decision problems. Undecidable problems: word problems for groups, solvability of Diophantine equations (Hilbert's 10th problem). Relations with mathematical logic and the GÃ¶del incompleteness theorems. Decidable problems, from number theory, algebra, combinatorics, and logic. Complexity of decision procedures. Inherently complex problems of exponential and superexponential difficulty. Feasible (polynomial time) computations. Polynomial deterministic vs. nondeterministic algorithms, NP-complete problems and the P = NP question. Not offered 2021-22.

ME/EE/EST 117.
Energy Technology and Policy.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc, Ch 1 ab and Ma 1 abc.
Energy technologies and the impact of government policy. Fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewables for electricity production and transportation. Resource models and climate change policies. New and emerging technologies.
Instructor: Hunt.

ACM 118.
Stochastic Processes and Regression.
12 units (3-0-9):
second term.
Prerequisites: CMS/ACM/IDS 107 or equivalent, CMS 117 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.
Stochastic processes: Branching processes, Poisson point processes, Determinantal point processes, Dirichlet processes and Gaussian processes (including the Brownian motion). Regression: Gaussian vectors, spaces, conditioning, processes, fields and measures will be presented with an emphasis on linear regression. Kernel and variational methods in numerical approximation, signal processing and learning will also be covered through their connections with Gaussian process regression.
Instructor: Owhadi.

Ae/ME 118.
Classical Thermodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ME11abc, ME12abc, or equivalent.
Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics. Basic laws of thermodynamics, work and heat, entropy and available work, and thermal systems. Equations of state, compressibility functions, and the Law of Corresponding States. Thermodynamic potentials, phase equilibrium, phase transitions, and thermodynamic properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Examples will be drawn from fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, energy systems, and thermal-science applications.
Instructor: Dimotakis.

Bi 118.
Morphogenesis of Developmental Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8 and Bi 9, or instructor's permission.
Lectures on and discussion of how cells, tissues, and organs take shape: the influence of force on cell shape change; cell migration including chemotaxis and collective cell movement; adhesion/deadhesion during migration; the relationship between cell migration and metastasis; and a review/overview of general signaling principles and embryonic development of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Students will choose term project involving writing a grant proposal or quantitative analysis of available datasets relating to lecture topics. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Stathopoulos.

ChE 118.
Introduction to the Design of Chemical Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 101, ChE 103 abc, ChE 126, or instructor's permission.
Short-term, open-ended projects that require students to design a chemical process or product. Each team generates and filters ideas, identifies use cases and objectives, evaluates and selects a design strategy, develops a project budget, schedules milestones and tasks, and writes a proposal with supporting documentation. Each project must meet specified requirements for societal impact, budget, duration, person hours, environmental impact, safety, and ethics.
Instructor: Vicic.

CS 118.
Automata-Theoretic Software Analysis.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
An introduction to the use of automata theory in the formal analysis of both concurrent and sequentially executing software systems. The course covers the use of logic model checking with linear temporal logic and interactive techniques for property-based static source code analysis.
Instructor: Holzmann.

En 118.
Classical Mythology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Why did the Greeks and Romans remain fascinated with the same stories of gods and demigods for more than a thousand years? On the other hand, how did they adapt those stories to fit new times and places? Starting with the earliest Greek poems and advancing through classical Athens, Hellenistic Alexandria, and Augustan Rome, we consider the history of writing poetry as a history of reading the past; the course also serves as an excellent introduction to ancient literary history at large. Readings may include Homer's 'Odyssey,' Hesiod, Aeschylus, Euripides, Apollonius Rhodius, Ovid, and Seneca. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Haugen.

Ge/ESE 118.
Methods in Data Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1 or equivalent.
Introduction to methods in data analysis. Course will be an overview of different ways that one can quantitatively analyze data, and will not focus on any one methodology. Topics will include linear regression, least squares inversion, Fourier analysis, principal component analysis, and Bayesian methods. Emphasis will be on both a theoretical understanding of these methods and on practical applications. Exercises will include using numerical software to analyze real data. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ma 118.
Topics in Mathematical Logic: Geometrical Paradoxes.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
This course will provide an introduction to the striking paradoxes that challenge our geometrical intuition. Topics to be discussed include geometrical transformations, especially rigid motions; free groups; amenable groups; group actions; equidecomposability and invariant measures; Tarski's theorem; the role of the axiom of choice; old and new paradoxes, including the Banach-Tarski paradox, the Laczkovich paradox (solving the Tarski circle-squaring problem), and the Dougherty-Foreman paradox (the solution of the Marczewski problem). Not offered 2021-22.

Ph/APh/EE/BE 118 ab.
Physics of Measurement.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 127, APh 105, or equivalent, or permission from instructor.
This course explores the fundamental underpinnings of experimental measurements from the perspectives of coupling, responsivity, noise, backaction, and information. Its overarching goal is to enable students to develop intuition about, and to critically evaluate, a diversity of real measurement systems - and to provide a framework for estimating the ultimate and practical limits to information that can be extracted from them. Topics will include physical signal transduction and responsivity, fundamental noise processes, modulation, frequency conversion, synchronous detection, signal-sampling techniques, digitization, signal transforms, spectral analyses, and correlation methods. The first term will cover the essential fundamental underpinnings, while topics in second term will focus their application to high frequency, microwave, and fast time-domain measurements where distributed approaches become imperative. The second term (in alternate years) may focus on topics that include either measurements at the quantum limit, biosensing and biological interfaces, of functional brain imaging. Not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Roukes.

Ay 119.
Astroinformatics.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
This class is an introduction to the data science skills from the applied computer science, statistics, and information technology, that are needed for a modern research in any data-intensive field, but with a special focus on the astronomical applications. Open to graduate and upper-division on undergraduate students in all options. The topics covered include design of data systems, regression techniques, supervised and unsupervised machine learning, databases, Bayesian statistics, high performance computing, software carpentry, deep learning, and visualization. The class will feature real-world examples from cutting-edge projects in which the instructors are involved.
Instructors: Djorgovski, Graham, Mahabal, Duev.

BEM/Ec/ESE 119.
Environmental Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11 or equivalent.
This course provides a survey from the perspective of economics of public policy issues regarding the management of natural resources and the protection of environmental quality. The course covers both conceptual topics and recent and current applications. Included are principles of environmental and resource economics, management of nonrenewable and renewable resources, and environmental policy with the focus on air pollution problems, both local problems (smog) and global problems (climate change). Not offered 2021-2022.

EE/CS 119 abc.
Advanced Digital Systems Design.
9 units (3-3-3):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: EE/CS 10 a or CS 24.
Advanced digital design as it applies to the design of systems using PLDs and ASICs (in particular, gate arrays and standard cells). The course covers both design and implementation details of various systems and logic device technologies. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of ASIC design, such as timing, testing, and fault grading. Topics include synchronous design, state machine design, ALU and CPU design, application-specific parallel computer design, design for testability, PALs, FPGAs, VHDL, standard cells, timing analysis, fault vectors, and fault grading. Students are expected to design and implement both systems discussed in the class as well as self-proposed systems using a variety of technologies and tools. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: George.

En 119.
Displacement.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The literary fascination with people who change places, temporarily or permanently, over a short distance or across the globe, in works dating from our lifetimes and from the recent and the remote past. How readily can such stories be compared, how easy is it to apply traditional categories of literary evaluation, and, in the contemporary world, how have poetry and prose fictions about migration survived alongside other media? 21st-century works will receive considerable attention; other readings may include Virgil, Swift, Flaubert, Mann, Achebe, Nabokov, Didion, Morrison.
Instructor: Haugen.

Ge 119.
Geology of the American Southwest.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course is a lecture-based course on the geologic history of the American Southwest (broadly defined as the southern parts of California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, as well as, Arizona, New Mexico). Lectures will cover the geologic history in chronologic order and will highlight the important scientific studies that deciphered the geologic record of the region. offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Bucholz.

Hum 119.
Selected Topics in Humanities.
variable:
offered by announcement.
This is an advanced humanities course on a specialized topic in some area of the humanities. It is usually taught by new or visiting faculty. The course may be re-taken for credit except as noted in the course announcement. Limited to 15 students. See registrar's announcement for details.
Instructors: Staff, visitors.

ME 119.
Heat and Mass Transfer.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ME 11 abc, ME 12 abc, ACM 95/100 (may be taken concurrently).
Transport properties, conservation equations, conduction heat transfer, convective heat and mass transport in laminar and turbulent flows, phase change processes, thermal radiation.
Instructor: Hunt.

Ae/ME 120.
Combustion Fundamentals.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Recommended: ME 118 and 119 or equivalent.
The course will cover chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, combustion chemistry, transport phenomena, and the governing equations for multicomponent gas mixtures. Topics will be chosen from non-premixed and premixed flames, laminar and turbulent flames, combustion-generated pollutants, and numerical simulations of reacting flows. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 120 ab.
Nature of the Chemical Bond.
a: 9 units (3-0-6), second term; b: (1-1-7), third term.:
second, third term.
Prerequisites: general exposure to quantum mechanics (e.g., Ch 21 a).
Modern ideas of chemical bonding, with an emphasis on qualitative concepts useful for predictions of structures, energetics, excited states, and properties. Part a: The quantum mechanical basis for understanding bonding, structures, energetics, and properties of materials (polymers, ceramics, metals alloys, semiconductors, and surfaces), including transition metal and organometallic systems with a focus on chemical reactivity. The emphasis is on explaining chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of materials in terms of atomistic concepts. Part b: The student does an individual research project using modern quantum chemistry computer programs to calculate wavefunctions, structures, and properties of real molecules.
Instructor: Goddard.

ChE 120.
Optimal Design of Chemical Systems.
9 units (1-6-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 101, ChE 103 abc, ChE 126, or instructor's permission.
Short-term, open-ended projects that require students to design and build a chemical process or manufacture a chemical product. Each team selects a project after reviewing a collection of proposals. Students use chemical engineering principles to design, build, test, and optimize a system, component, or product that fulfills specified performance requirements, subject to constraints imposed by budget, schedule, logistics, environmental impact, safety, and ethics.
Instructor: Vicic.

CS/Ph 120.
Quantum Cryptography.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1b, Ph 2b or Ph 12b, CS 21, CS 38 or equivalent recommended (or instructor's permission).
This course is an introduction to quantum cryptography: how to use quantum effects, such as quantum entanglement and uncertainty, to implement cryptographic tasks with levels of security that are impossible to achieve classically. The course covers the fundamental ideas of quantum information that form the basis for quantum cryptography, such as entanglement and quantifying quantum knowledge. We will introduce the security definition for quantum key distribution and see protocols and proofs of security for this task. We will also discuss the basics of device-independent quantum cryptography as well as other cryptographic tasks and protocols, such as bit commitment or position-based cryptography. Not offered 2021-2022

EE/APh 120.
Physical Optics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Intermediate-level familiarity with Fourier transforms and linear systems analysis.
Basic familiarity with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory (EE40 and EE44, or equivalent). Course focuses on applying linear systems analysis on propagation of light waves. Contents begin with a review of Electromagnetic theory of diffraction and transitions to Fourier Optics for a scalar-wave treatment of propagation, diffraction, and image formation with coherent and incoherent light. In addition to problems in imaging, the course makes connections to a selected number of topics in optics where the mathematics of wave phenomena plays a central role. Examples include propagation of light in multilayer films and meta-surfaces, non-diffracting beams, Fabry-Perrot cavities, and angular momentum of light. Areas of application include modern imaging, display, and beam shaping technologies.
Instructor: Mirhosseini.

En 120.
What Women Want: Desire and the Modern American Novel.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The question of what a woman wants animates a central strain of the modern American novel, as do evolving ideas about what women can and cannot have. This course considers female desire-for personal agency and freedom, self- and sexual fulfillment, economic and social opportunity-across a half dozen novels written from about 1880 - 1940, in light of some of the cultural forces that shape and constrain characters' (and real women's) horizons. Authors covered may include Henry James, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, Anzia Yezierska, Nella Larsen, and Zora Neale Hurston. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Jurca.

Ge 120 a.
Field Geology: Introduction to Field Geology.
9 units (1-6-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab, Ge 106 (may be taken concurrently with Ge 106).
A comprehensive introduction to methods of geological field mapping in preparation for summer field camp. Laboratory exercises introduce geometrical and graphical techniques in the analysis of geologic maps. Field trips introduce methods of geological mapping.
Instructor: Bucholz.

Ge 120 b.
Field Geology: Summer Field Camp.
15 units (0-15-0):
summer term.
Prerequisites: Ge 120 a or instructor's permission.
Intensive three-week field course in a well-exposed area of the western United States covering techniques of geologic field observation, mapping, analysis, and report preparation. Field work begins in mid-June after Commencement Day.
Instructor: Bucholz.

HPS/Pl 120.
Introduction to Philosophy of Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An introduction to fundamental philosophical problems concerning the nature of science. Topics may include the character of scientific explanation, criteria for the conformation and falsification of scientific theories, the relationship between theory and observation, philosophical accounts of the concept of "law of nature," causation, chance, realism about unobservable entities, the objectivity of science, and issues having to do with the ways in which scientific knowledge changes over time.
Instructor: Sebens.

Ma 120 abc.
Abstract Algebra.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent or instructor's permission.
This course will discuss advanced topics in algebra. Among them: an introduction to commutative algebra and homological algebra, infinite Galois theory, Kummer theory, Brauer groups, semisimiple algebras, Weddburn theorems, Jacobson radicals, representation theory of finite groups.
Instructors: Szumowicz, Zhu, Flach.

PS 120.
American Electoral Behavior and Party Strategy.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A consideration of existing literature on the voting behavior of the citizen, and an examination of theoretical and empirical views of the strategies followed by the parties. Two substantial papers are expected of students.
Instructor: Alvarez.

Psy 120.
Metascience: The Science of Being An Impactful Scientist.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites, but having taken Bi/CNS 150 would be advantageous.
This course will provide the student with a unique insight into the skills used by successful scientists in the social sciences, with the focus being on psychology and cognitive neuroscience (although this is interesting for any type of science career). The course promotes active (hands on) learning, to enhance skills such as creative idea formation, theory, science communication including presentation and writing skills for the public. The class will also provide discussion on practices and expert opinions on what departments looks for when recruiting students and hiring faculty.
Instructor: Mobbs.

SEC 120.
Data Visualization Projects.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
This course will provide students with a forum for discussing and working through challenges of visualizing students' data using techniques and principles from graphic design, user experience design, and visual practices in science and engineering. Working together, we will help create and edit students' graphics and other visual forms of data to improve understanding. We will consider the strengths and weaknesses of communicating information visually in drawing, design and diagramming forms such as flow charts, brainstorming maps, graphs, illustrations, movies, animation, as well as public presentation materials, depending on the needs of students' projects. Our approach will be derived from design principles outlined by Edward Tufte and others. The course is targeted towards students across disciplines using visual display and exploration in research. There is no pre-requisite, but students should be competent in acquiring and processing data.
Instructor: TBD.

VC 120.
Landscape, Representation and Society.
6 units (2-2-2):
third term.
This course examines historical and contemporary representations of the natural world in art and science through a social lens. We will draw upon theory and practices from art, science, geography and landscape studies to critically analyze how artists, explorers, speculators, scientists, military strategists, and local inhabitants use environmental imagery for diverse purposes with sometimes conflicting interests. The course includes projects, lectures, readings, discussions and a 2-day field trip. Students will learn to think critically while developing creative, culturally complex approaches to observing, recording and representing the natural world. Students hoping to combine their course work with a research paper may sign up for a separate independent study and conduct research concurrently, with instructor approval. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Mushkin.

Ae 121 abc.
Space Propulsion.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Open to all graduate students and to seniors with instructor's permission.
Ae 121 is designed to introduce the fundamentals of chemical, electric and advanced propulsion technologies. The course focuses on the thermochemistry and aerodynamics of chemical and electrothermal propulsion systems, the physics of ionized gases and electrostatic and electromagnetic processes in electric thrusters. These analyses provide the opportunity to introduce the basic concepts of non-equilibrium gas dynamics and kinetic theory. Specific technologies such as launch vehicle rocket engines, monopropellant engines, arcjets, ion thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic engines and Hall thrusters will be discussed. Ae 121 also provides an introduction to advanced propulsion concepts such as solar sails and antimatter rockets.
Instructor: Polk.

Ay 121.
Radiative Processes.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph106bc, Ph 125 or equivalent (undergraduates).
The interaction of radiation with matter: radiative transfer, emission, and absorption. Compton processes, coherent emission processes, synchrotron radiation, collisional excitation, spectroscopy of atoms and molecules.
Instructor: Ravi.

Ch 121 ab.
Atomic-Level Simulations of Materials and Molecules.
Ch 121 a: 9 units (3-0-6) third term; Ch 121 b (1-1-7) first term:
third, first terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 a or Ch 125 a.
Application of Atomistic-based methods [Quantum Mechanics (QM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD)] for predicting the structures and properties of molecules and solids and simulating the dynamical properties. This course emphasizes hands-on use of modern commercial software (such as Jaguar for QM, VASP for periodic QM, and LAMMPS for MD) for practical applications and is aimed at experimentalists and theorists interested in understanding structures, properties, and dynamics in such areas as biological systems (proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, lipids); polymers (crystals, amorphous systems, co-polymers); semiconductors (group IV, III-V, surfaces, defects); inorganic systems (ceramics, zeolites, superconductors, and metals); organo-metallics, and catalysis (heterogeneous, homogeneous, and electrocatalysis). Ch121a covers the basic methods with hands-on applications to systems of interest using modern software. The homework for the first 5 weeks emphasizes computer based solutions. For the second 5 weeks of the homework each student proposes a short research project and uses atomistic simulations to solve it. Ch121b each student selects a more extensive research project and uses atomistic simulations to solve it.
Instructor: Goddard.

CS/IDS 121.
Relational Databases.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CS 1 or equivalent.
Introduction to the basic theory and usage of relational database systems. It covers the relational data model, relational algebra, and the Structured Query Language (SQL). The course introduces the basics of database schema design and covers the entity-relationship model, functional dependency analysis, and normal forms. Additional topics include other query languages based on the relational calculi, data-warehousing and dimensional analysis, writing and using stored procedures, working with hierarchies and graphs within relational databases, and an overview of transaction processing and query evaluation. Extensive hands-on work with SQL databases.
Instructor: Hovik.

Ec 121 ab.
Theory of Value.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ec 11 and Ma 1b (may be taken concurrently).
A study of consumer preference, the structure and conduct of markets, factor pricing, measures of economic efficiency, and the interdependence of markets in reaching a general equilibrium.
Instructors: Pourbabaee, Saito.

EE 121.
Computational Signal Processing.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: EE 111, ACM/EE/IDS 116, ACM/IDS 104.
The role of computation in the acquisition, representation, and processing of signals. The course develops methodology based on linear algebra and optimization, with an emphasis on the interplay between structure, algorithms, and accuracy in the design and analysis of the methods. Specific topics covered include deterministic and stochastic signal models, statistical signal processing, inverse problems, and regularization. Problems arising in contemporary applications in the sciences and engineering are discussed, although the focus is on the common abstractions and methodological frameworks that are employed in the solution of these problems. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Chandrasekaran.

En 121.
Literature and Its Readers.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The course will investigate readers who have made adventurous uses of their favorite works of literature, from Greek antiquity through the 20th century. Sometimes those readers count, at least temporarily, as literary critics, as when the philosopher Aristotle made Sophocles' Oedipus the King the central model in his wildly successful essay on the literary form of tragedy. Other readers have been even more experimental, as when Sigmund Freud, studying the same play, made the "Oedipus complex" a meeting point for his theory of psychology, his vision of human societies, and his fascination with literary narrative. It will discuss some basic questions about the phenomenon of literary reading. Does a book have a single meaning? Can it be used rightly or wrongly? Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Haugen.

Ge 121 abc.
Advanced Field Geology.
12 units (0-9-3):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ge 120 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Field mapping and supporting laboratory studies in topical problems related to the geology of the southwestern United States. Course provides a breadth of experience in igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks or geomorphology. Multiple terms of 121 may be taken more than once for credit if taught by different instructors.
Instructors: Lamb (a), Stock (b), Grotzinger (c).

Ma 121 ab.
Combinatorial Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
A survey of modern combinatorial mathematics, starting with an introduction to graph theory and extremal problems. Flows in networks with combinatorial applications. Counting, recursion, and generating functions. Theory of partitions. (0, 1)-matrices. Partially ordered sets. Latin squares, finite geometries, combinatorial designs, and codes. Algebraic graph theory, graph embedding, and coloring.
Instructors: SchÃ¼lke, Conlon.

MS 121.
Laboratory Research Methods in Materials Science.
9 units (1-4-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: MS 115 or graduate standing.
Introduction to experimental methods and approaches for the analysis of structure, dynamics, and properties of materials. Staff members with expertise in various areas including mechanical testing, calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, solid state NMR and electrochemistry will introduce and supervise experiments in their specialty. As the situation permits, students are given a choice in selecting experiments.
Instructor: Ahn.

Ph 121 abc.
Computational Physics Lab.
6 units (0-6-0):
first, second, third terms.
Many of the recent advances in physics are attributed to progress in computational power. In the advanced computational lab, students will hone their computational skills bu working through projects inspired by junior level classes (such as classical mechanics and E, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics and quantum many-body physics). This course will primarily be in Python and Mathematica. This course is offered pass/fail.
Instructors: Simmons-Duffin, Refael.

PS 121.
Analyzing Congress.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Introduction to the US Congress with an emphasis on thinking analytically and empirically about the determinants of Congressional behavior. Among the factors examined are the characteristics and incentives of legislators, rules governing the legislative process and internal organization, separation of powers, political parties, Congressional elections, and interest group influence. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 122 abc.
Astronomical Measurements and Instrumentation.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 106bc or equivalent.
Measurement and signal analysis techniques througout the electromagnetic spectrum. Courses may include lab work and field trips to Caltech observatories. Ay 122a concentrates on infrared, optical, and ultraviolet techniques: telescopes, optics, detectors, photometry, spectroscopy, active/adaptive optics, coronography. Imaging devices and image processing. Ay 122b concentrates on radio through submillimeter techniques: antennae, receivers, mixers, and amplifiers. Interferometers and aperture synthesis arrays. Signal analysis techniques and probability and statistics, as relevant to astronomical measurement. Ay 122c (not offered 2021-22) concentrates on X-ray through gamma-ray techniques.
Instructors: Martin, Howard, Hallinan, Ravi.

Bi 122.
Genetics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8 or Bi 9, or instructor's permission.
Lecture and discussion course covering basic principles of genetics. Not open to freshmen.
Instructors: Hay, Staff.

Ch 122.
Structure Determination by X-ray Crystallography.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc or instructor's permission.
This course provides an introduction to small molecule X-ray crystallography. Topics include symmetry, space groups, diffraction by crystals, the direct and reciprocal lattice, Patterson and direct methods for phase determination, and structure refinement. It will cover both theoretical and applied concepts and include hands-on experience in data collection, structure solution and structure refinement.
Instructor: Takase.

CMS/ACM/EE 122.
Mathematical Optimization.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM 11 and ACM 104, or instructor's permission.
This class studies mathematical optimization from the viewpoint of convexity. Topics covered include duality and representation of convex sets; linear and semidefinite programming; connections to discrete, network, and robust optimization; relaxation methods for intractable problems; as well as applications to problems arising in graphs and networks, information theory, control, signal processing, and other engineering disciplines.
Instructor: Chandrasekaran.

CS 122.
Database System Implementation.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: CS 2, CS 38, CS/IDS 121 and familiarity with Java, or instructor's permission.
This course explores the theory, algorithms, and approaches behind modern relational database systems. Topics include file storage formats, query planning and optimization, query evaluation, indexes, transaction processing, concurrency control, and recovery. Assignments consist of a series of programming projects extending a working relational database, giving hands-on experience with the topics covered in class. The course also has a strong focus on proper software engineering practices, including version control, testing, and documentation. Not offered 2021-2022

Ec 122.
Econometrics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3.
The application of statistical techniques to the analysis of economic data.
Instructor: Sherman.

En 122.
Early History of the Novel.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The realistic novel is a surprising, even experimental moment in the history of fiction. How and why did daily life become a legitimate topic for narrative in the 18th century? The realistic turn clearly attracted new classes of readers, but did it also make the novel a better vehicle for commenting on society at large? Why were the formal conventions of realistic writing so tightly circumscribed? Authors may include Cervantes, Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Sterne, Walpole, Boswell, and Austen.
Instructor: Haugen.

Ge 122 abc.
Field Geology Seminar.
6 units (1-3-2):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ge 11ab or Ge 101, or instructor's permission.
Each term, a different field topic in Southern California will be examined in both seminar and field format. Relevant readings will be discussed in a weekly class meeting. During the 3-day weekend field trip we will examine field localities relevant to the topic, to permit detailed discussion of the observations. Topic: tbd. Graded pass/fail. Offered 2021-2022 (third term only).
Instructor: Stock.

HPS/Pl 122.
Probability, Evidence, and Belief.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Philosophical and conceptual issues arising from the study of probability theory and how it relates to rationality and belief. Topics discussed may include the foundations and interpretations of probability, arguments for and against the view that we ought to have personal degrees of belief, rational change in beliefs over time, and the relationship between probability and traditional epistemological topics like evidence, justification, and knowledge. Not offered 2021-2022.

MS/APh 122.
Diffraction, Imaging, and Structure.
9 units (0-4-5):
third term.
Prerequisites: MS 132, may be taken concurrently.
Experimental methods in transmission electron microscopy of inorganic materials including diffraction, spectroscopy, conventional imaging, high resolution imaging and sample preparation. Weekly laboratory exercises to complement material in MS 132. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Ahn.

PS 122.
Political Representation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: PS 12.
Why does the U.S. Constitution feature separation of powers and protect states' rights? Should the Senate have a filibuster? When can Congress agree on the best policy for the country (and what does "best" even mean)? This course uses a rigorous set of tools including game theory and social choice to help students understand the effectiveness of American democracy to represent diverse interests. Using the tools, we study U.S. electoral systems, Congress, federalism, and the courts, with a focus on understanding how the country has tried to overcome the challenges of group decision making and the inevitable conflicts that arise between the branches of government and divided political interests. Students will leave the course with a deeper understanding of how rules and strategy shape U.S. democracy.
Instructor: Gibilisco.

Ay 123.
Structure and Evolution of Stars.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ay 101; Ph 125 or equivalent (undergraduates).
Thermodynamics, equation of state, convection, opacity, radiative transfer, stellar atmospheres, nuclear reactions, and stellar models. Evolution of low- and high-mass stars, supernovae, and binary stars.
Instructor: Fuller.

CS 123.
Projects in Database Systems.
9 units (0-0-9):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS/IDS 121 and CS 122.
Students are expected to execute a substantial project in databases, write up a report describing their work, and make a presentation. Not offered 2021-2022

Ec 123.
Analysis of Consumer Choices.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ec 122 or permission of the instructor.
This course uses econometric tools to analyze choices made by people among a finite set of alternatives. Discrete choice models have been used to understand consumer behavior in many domains - shopping between brands (Toyota vs. BMW), where to go to college (Caltech or MIT), choosing between modes of transportation (car, metro, Uber, or bicycle), etc. Models studied include logit, nested logit, probit, and mixed logit, etc. Simulation techniques that allow estimation of otherwise intractable models will also be discussed.
Instructor: Xin.

EE/APh 123.
Advanced Lasers and Photonics Laboratory.
9 units (1-3-5):
first term.
Prerequisites: none.
This course focuses on hands-on experience with advanced techniques related to lasers, optics, and photonics. Students have the opportunity to build and run several experiments and analyze data. Covered topics include laser-based microscopy, spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, ultrafast optics, adaptive optics, and integrated photonics. Limited enrollment.
Instructor: Marandi.

En 123.
The 19th-Century English Novel.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A survey of the 19th-century novel from Austen through Conrad, with special emphasis upon the Victorians. Major authors may include Austen, Shelley, Dickens, Eliot, Thackeray, Gaskell, BrontÃ«, Collins, Trollope, Stoker, Hardy. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmore.

Ge 123.
Continental Crust Seminar.
3 units (1-0-2):
second term.
A seminar course focusing on a topic related to the continental crust, which will be decided depending on the interest of participating students. Potential topics include arc magmatism, the evolution of the composition of continental crust through time, formation of granites, or specific localities/regions that help shape our understanding of continental crust generation. The course will comprise weekly student-lead discussion of scientific journal articles.
Instructor: Bucholz.

H 123.
Ordinary People: Uncovering Everyday Life in the European Past.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
In the historical record, much attention is given to wealthy elites (rulers and lawmakers, aristocrats, wealthy merchants), since they were the ones who left written records of their political and economic activities and their personal affairs. But what about the vast majority of people who lived in the past, most of whom were barely literate and had little opportunity to 'make history'? What can we know about them? This class focuses on the lives of ordinary people, and the sources historians use to learn about them. Special attention will be given to women, the poor, and other marginalized groups in societies ranging from England in the west to Russia in the east. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dennison.

HPS/Pl 123.
Introduction to the Philosophy of Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 1abc or instructor's permission.
This course will examine the philosophical foundations of the physical theories covered in the freshman physics sequence: classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and special relativity. Topics may include: the goals of physics; what laws of nature are; the unification of physical theories; symmetries; determinism; locality; the reality of fields; the arrow of time.
Instructor: Sebens.

Ma 123.
Classification of Simple Lie Algebras.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent.
This course is an introduction to Lie algebras and the classification of the simple Lie algebras over the complex numbers. This will include Lie's theorem, Engel's theorem, the solvable radical, and the Cartan Killing trace form. The classification of simple Lie algebras proceeds in terms of the associated reflection groups and a classification of them in terms of their Dynkin diagrams. Not offered 2021-22.

PS 123.
Regulation and Politics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: PS 12.
This course will examine the historical origins of several regulatory agencies and trace their development over the past century or so. It will also investigate a number of current issues in regulatory politics, including the great discrepancies that exist in the cost-effectiveness of different regulations, and the advent of more market-based approaches to regulations instead of traditional "command-and-control." Not offered on a pass/fail basis.
Instructor: Kiewiet.

Ay 124.
Structure and Evolution of Galaxies.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ay 21; Ph 106 or equivalent (undergraduates).
Stellar dynamics and properties of galaxies; instabilities; spiral and barred galaxies; tidal dynamics and galaxy mergers; stellar composition, masses, kinematics, and structure of galaxies; galactic archeology; galactic star formation; feedback from stars and super-massive black holes; circum-galactic medium.
Instructor: Hopkins.

CS 124.
Operating Systems.
12 units (3-6-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 24.
This course explores the major themes and components of modern operating systems, such as kernel architectures, the process abstraction and process scheduling, system calls, concurrency within the OS, virtual memory management, and file systems. Students must work in groups to complete a series of challenging programming projects, implementing major components of an instructional operating system. Most programming is in C, although some IA32 assembly language programming is also necessary. Familiarity with the material in CS 24 is strongly advised before attempting this course.
Instructor: Pinkston.

Ec/PS 124.
Identification Problems in the Social Sciences.
9 units (3- 0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 122.
Statistical inference in the social sciences is a difficult enterprise whereby we combine data and assumptions to draw conclusions about the world we live in. We then make decisions, for better or for worse, based on these conclusions. A simultaneously intoxicating and sobering thought! Strong assumptions about the data generating process can lead to strong but often less than credible (perhaps incredible?) conclusions about our world. Weaker assumptions can lead to weaker but more credible conclusions. This course explores the range of inferences that are possible when we entertain a range of assumptions about how data is generated. We explore these ideas in the context of a number of applications of interest to social scientists. Not offered 2021-2022.

EE/MedE 124.
Mixed-mode Integrated Circuits.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE 45 a or equivalent.
Introduction to selected topics in mixed-signal circuits and systems in highly scaled CMOS technologies. Design challenges and limitations in current and future technologies will be discussed through topics such as clocking (PLLs and DLLs), clock distribution networks, sampling circuits, high-speed transceivers, timing recovery techniques, equalization, monitor circuits, power delivery, and converters (A/D and D/A). A design project is an integral part of the course.
Instructor: Emami.

En 124.
20th-Century British Fiction.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A survey of the 20th-century British and Irish novel, from the modernist novel to the postcolonial novel. Major authors may include Conrad, Joyce, Woolf, Forster, Lawrence, Orwell, Amis, Lessing, Rushdie. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 124 a.
Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy.
6 units (0-0-6):
third term.
Application of paleomagnetism to the solution of problems in stratigraphic correlation and to the construction of a high-precision geological timescale. A field trip to the southwest United States or Mexico to study the physical stratigraphy and magnetic zonation, followed by lab analysis. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Kirschvink.

Ge 124 b.
Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab.
The principles of rock magnetism and physical stratigraphy; emphasis on the detailed application of paleomagnetic techniques to the determination of the history of the geomagnetic field. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Kirschvink.

HPS/Pl 124.
Philosophy of Space and Time.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course will focus on questions about the nature of space and time, particularly as they arise in connection with physical theory. Topics may include the nature and existence of space, time, and motion; the relationship between geometry and physical space (or space-time); entropy and the direction of time; the nature of simultaneity; and the possibility of time travel. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hubert.

Ma 124.
Elliptic Curves.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent.
The ubiquitous elliptic curves will be analyzed from elementary, geometric, and arithmetic points of view. Possible topics are the group structure via the chord-and-tangent method, the Nagel-Lutz procedure for finding division points, Mordell's theorem on the finite generation of rational points, points over finite fields through a special case treated by Gauss, Lenstra's factoring algorithm, integral points. Other topics may include diophantine approximation and complex multiplication. Not offered 2021-22.

Ay 125.
High-Energy Astrophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 106 and Ph 125 or equivalent (undergraduates).
High-energy astrophysics, the final stages of stellar evolution; supernovae, binary stars, accretion disks, pulsars; extragalactic radio sources; active galactic nuclei; black holes.
Instructor: Phinney.

Ch 125 ab.
The Elements of Quantum Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc or an equivalent brief introduction to quantum mechanics.
A treatment of quantum mechanics with application to molecular and material systems. The basic elements of quantum mechanics, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules, the interactions of radiation fields and matter, and time dependent techniques relevant to spectroscopy will be covered. The course sequence prepares students for Ch 225 and 226.
Instructors: Cushing (a), Weitekamp (b).

EE/CS/MedE 125.
Digital Electronics and Design with FPGAs and VHDL.
9 units (3-6-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE/CS 10 or equivalent.
Study of programmable logic devices (CPLDs and FPGAs). Detailed study of the VHDL language, with basic and advanced applications. Review and discussion of digital design principles for combinational-logic, combinational-arithmetic, sequential, and state-machine circuits. Detailed tutorials for synthesis and simulation tools using FPGAs and VHDL. Wide selection of complete, real-world fundamental advanced projects, including theory, design, simulation, and physical implementation. All designs are implemented using state-of-the-art development boards.
Instructor: Pedroni.

En 125.
British Romantic Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
A selective survey of English writing in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Major authors may include Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley, and Austen. Particular attention will be paid to intellectual and historical contexts and to new understandings of the role of literature in society. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmartin.

Ge 125.
Geomorphology.
12 units (3-5-4):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 a or instructor's permission.
A quantitative examination of landforms, runoff generation, river hydraulics, sediment transport, erosion and deposition, hillslope creep, landslides and debris flows, glacial processes, and submarine and Martian landscapes. Field and laboratory exercises are designed to facilitate quantitative measurements and analyses of geomorphic processes. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Lamb.

H 125.
Soviet Russia.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Why was the Russian Revolution of 1917 successful? And how did the Soviet system survive nearly 75 years? These questions will be addressed in the wider context of Russian history, with a focus on political, economic, and social institutions in the pre- and post-revolutionary period. Subjects covered include the ideological underpinnings of Bolshevism, Lenin and the Bolshevik coup, the rise of Stalin, collectivization, socialist realism, the command economy, World War II, the Krushchev 'thaw', dissident culture and the arts, popular culture, and Gorbachev's perestroika. A variety of sources will be used, including secondary historical literature, fiction, film, and art.
Instructor: Dennison.

HPS/Pl 125.
Philosophical Issues in Quantum Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2b, Ph 12b, or Ch 21a.
This course will focus on philosophical and foundational questions raised by quantum physics. Questions may include: Is quantum mechanics a local theory? Is the theory deterministic or indeterministic? What is the role of measurement and observation? Does the wave function always obey the SchrÃ¶dinger equation? Does the wave function give a complete description of the state of a system? Are there parallel universes? How are we to understand quantum probabilities?
Instructor: Hubert.

Ma 125.
Algebraic Curves.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
An elementary introduction to the theory of algebraic curves. Topics to be covered will include affine and projective curves, smoothness and singularities, function fields, linear series, and the Riemann-Roch theorem. Possible additional topics would include Riemann surfaces, branched coverings and monodromy, arithmetic questions, introduction to moduli of curves. Not offered 2021-22.

MS 125.
Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy.
9 units (1-6-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: MS 122.
Diffraction contrast analysis of crystalline defects. Phase contrast imaging. Physical optics approach to dynamical electron diffraction and imaging. Microbeam methods for diffraction and imaging. Chemical analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and electron energy loss spectrometry. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ph 125 abc.
Quantum Mechanics.
9 units (4-0-5):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 2 ab, Ph 12 abc or Ph 2 ab, or equivalents.
A one-year course in quantum mechanics and its applications, for students who have completed Ph 12 or Ph 2. Wave mechanics in 3-D, scattering theory, Hilbert spaces, matrix mechanics, angular momentum, symmetries, spin-1/2 systems, approximation methods, identical particles, and selected topics in atomic, solid-state, nuclear, and particle physics. Chen.
Instructors: Wise, Porter, Y.

PS 125.
Analyzing Political Conflict and Violence.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course examines the causes of and solutions for conflict and violence: Why do wars occur and how do we stop them? We cover topics such as terrorism, ethnic violence, civil wars, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, repression, revolutions, and inter-state wars. We study these phenomena using the rational choice framework and modern tools in data analysis. The goals of the class are to explain conflicts and their terminations as outcomes of strategic decision-making and to understand the empirical strengths and weakness of current explanations.
Instructor: Gibilisco.

Psy 125.
Reading and Research in Psychology.
:
.
Same as Psy 25, but for graduate credit. Not available for credit toward humanities-social science requirement. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 126.
Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ay 102 (undergraduates).
Physical processes in the interstellar medium. Ionization, thermal and dynamic balance of interstellar medium, molecular clouds, hydrodynamics, magnetic fields, H II regions, supernova remnants, star formation, global structure of interstellar medium.
Instructor: Hillenbrand.

ChE 126.
Chemical Engineering Laboratory.
9 units (1-6-2):
first term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 101, ChE 103 abc, ChE 105, or instructor's permission.
Short-term projects that require students to work in teams to design systems or system components. Projects typically include unit operations and instruments for chemical detection. Each team must identify specific project requirements, including performance specifications, costs, and failure modes. Students use chemical engineering principles to design, implement, and optimize a system (or component) that fulfills these requirements, while addressing issues and constraints related to environmental impact, safety, and ethics. Students also learn professional ethics through the analysis of case studies.
Instructor: Vicic.

EE/Ma/CS 126 ab.
Information Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 3.
Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, 1948-present. Entropy, relative entropy, and mutual information for discrete and continuous random variables. Shannon's source and channel coding theorems. Mathematical models for information sources and communication channels, including memoryless, Markov, ergodic, and Gaussian. Calculation of capacity and rate-distortion functions. Universal source codes. Side information in source coding and communications. Network information theory, including multiuser data compression, multiple access channels, broadcast channels, and multiterminal networks. Discussion of philosophical and practical implications of the theory. This course, when combined with EE 112, EE/Ma/CS/IDS 127, EE/CS 161, and EE/CS/IDS 167, should prepare the student for research in information theory, coding theory, wireless communications, and/or data compression. EE/Ma/CS 126a offered 2021-2022; EE/Ma/CS 126b not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Effros.

En 126.
Gothic Fiction.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The literature of horror, fantasy, and the supernatural, from the late 18th century to the present day. Particular attention will be paid to gothic's shifting cultural imperative, from its origins as a qualified reaction to Enlightenment rationalism, to the contemporary ghost story as an instrument of social and psychological exploration. Issues will include atmosphere and the gothic sense of space; gothic as a popular pathology; and the gendering of gothic narrative. Fiction by Walpole, Shelley, BrontÃ«, Stoker, Poe, Wilde, Angela Carter, and Toni Morrison. Film versions of the gothic may be included. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmartin.

Ge 126.
Topics in Earth Surface Processes.
6 units (2-0-4):
second term.
A seminar-style course focusing on a specific theme within geomorphology and sedimentology depending on student interest. Potential themes could include river response to climate change, bedrock erosion in tectonically active mountain belts, or delta evolution on Earth and Mars. The course will consist of student-led discussions centered on readings from peer-reviewed literature.
Instructor: Lamb.

IDS/Ec/PS 126.
Applied Data Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Math 3/103 or ACM/EE/IDS 116, Ec 122 or IDS/ACM/CS 157 or Ma 112a.
Fundamentally, this course is about making arguments with numbers and data. Data analysis for its own sake is often quite boring, but becomes crucial when it supports claims about the world. A convincing data analysis starts with the collection and cleaning of data, a thoughtful and reproducible statistical analysis of it, and the graphical presentation of the results. This course will provide students with the necessary practical skills, chiefly revolving around statistical computing, to conduct their own data analysis. This course is not an introduction to statistics or computer science. I assume that students are familiar with at least basic probability and statistical concepts up to and including regression.
Instructor: Katz.

AM/ACM 127.
Calculus of Variations.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100.
First and second variations; Euler-Lagrange equation; Hamiltonian formalism; action principle; Hamilton-Jacobi theory; stability; local and global minima; direct methods and relaxation; isoperimetric inequality; asymptotic methods and gamma convergence; selected applications to mechanics, materials science, control theory and numerical methods.
Instructor: Bhattacharya.

An/PS 127.
Corruption.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: AN 14 or PS 12.
Corruption taxes economies and individuals in both the developing and the developed world. We will examine what corruption means in different places and contexts, from grand financial scandals to misappropriation of all manner of public resources. How do we measure corruption? What are its costs and social consequences? What have culture and psychology got to do with it? How much do governance and a free press matter? What are the potential solutions? Students will work closely with the professor to develop an independent and original research project of their choice. Limited enrollment.
Instructor: Ensminger.

Ay 127.
Astrophysical Cosmology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ay 21; Ph 106 or equivalent (undergraduates).
Cosmology; extragalactic distance determinations; relativistic cosmological models; thermal history of the universe; nucleosynthesis; microwave background fluctuations; large-scale structure; inter-galactic medium; cosmological tests; galaxy formation and clustering.
Instructor: Martin.

EE/Ma/CS/IDS 127.
Error-Correcting Codes.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE 55 or Ma 3.
This course develops from first principles the theory and practical implementation of the most important techniques for combating errors in digital transmission or storage systems. Topics include highly symmetric linear codes, such as Hamming, Reed-Muller, and Polar codes; algebraic block codes, e.g., BCH, Reed-Solomon (including a self-contained introduction to the theory of finite fields); and sparse graph codes with iterative decoding, i.e., LDPC code and turbo codes. Students will become acquainted with encoding and decoding algorithms, design principles and performance evaluation of codes.
Instructor: Kostina.

En 127.
Jane Austen.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course will focus on the major novels of Jane Austen: Northanger Abbey, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, and Persuasion. Film and television adaptations will also be considered, and students may have the opportunity to read Austen's unfinished works, as well as related eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British fiction and non-fiction. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmartin.

Ge/Ch 127.
Nuclear Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
A survey course in the properties of nuclei, and in atomic phenomena associated with nuclear-particle detection. Topics include rates of production and decay of radioactive nuclei; interaction of radiation with matter; nuclear masses, shapes, spins, and moments; modes of radioactive decay; nuclear fission and energy generation. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Burnett.

Ph 127 ab.
Statistical Physics of Interacting Systems, Phases, and Phase Transitions.
9 units (4-0-5):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 12 c or equivalent; quantum mechanics at the level of Ph 125 ab is required for Ph 127 b; may be taken concurrently.
An advanced course in statistical physics that focuses on systems of interacting particles. Part a will cover interacting gases and spin models of magnetism, phase transitions and broken symmetries, classical field theories, and renormalization group approach to collective phenomena. Part b will introduce the path-integral based quantum to classical statistical mechanics mapping, as well as dualities and topological-defects descriptions, with applications to magnets, superfluids, and gauge field theories.
Instructor: Motrunich.

ChE 128.
Chemical Engineering Design Laboratory.
9 units (1-6-2):
second term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 101, ChE 103 abc, or instructor's permission.
Short-term, open-ended research projects targeting chemical processes and materials. Each student is required to design, construct, and troubleshoot her/his own process, then use chemical engineering principles to experimentally evaluate and optimize process metrics or material attributes. Where possible, cost analysis is performed.
Instructors: Giapis, Vicic.

EE 128 ab.
Selected Topics in Digital Signal Processing.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: EE 111 and EE/CS/IDS 160 or equivalent required, and EE 112 or equivalent recommended.
The course focuses on several important topics that are basic to modern signal processing. Topics include multirate signal processing material such as decimation, interpolation, filter banks, polyphase filtering, advanced filtering structures and nonuniform sampling, optimal statistical signal processing material such as linear prediction and antenna array processing, and signal processing for communication including optimal transceivers. Not offered 2021-2022.

En 128.
Modern and Contemporary Irish Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The development of Irish fiction, poetry, and drama from the early 20th-century Irish literary renaissance, through the impact of modernism, to the Field Day movement and other contemporary developments. Topics may include the impact of political violence and national division upon the literary imagination; the use of folk and fairy-tale traditions; patterns of emigration and literary exile; the challenge of the English language and the relation of Irish writing to British literary tradition; and recent treatments of Irish literature in regional, postcolonial, and global terms. Works by Joyce, Yeats, Synge, Friel, O'Brien, Heaney, Boland, and others. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmartin.

Ge/Ch 128.
Cosmochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Examination of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, of protostellar nebulae, and of primitive solar-system objects with a view toward establishing the relationship of the chemical evolution of atoms in the interstellar radiation field to complex molecules and aggregates in the early solar system that may contribute to habitability. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the physical conditions in various objects, timescales for physical and chemical change, chemical processes leading to change, observational constraints, and various models that attempt to describe the chemical state and history of cosmological objects in general and the early solar system in particular. Given in alternate years; Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Blake.

HPS/Pl 128.
Philosophy of Mathematics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An examination of conceptual issues that arise in mathematics. The sorts of issues addressed may include the following: Are mathematical objects such as numbers in some sense real? How do we obtain knowledge of the mathematical world? Are proofs the only legitimate source of mathematical knowledge? What is the relationship between mathematics and the world? How is it possible to apply abstract theory to the world? Views of major historical figures such as Plato, Hume, Kant, and Mill, as well as of contemporary writers are examined. The course will also examine philosophical issues that arise in particular areas of mathematics such as probability theory and geometry. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hitchcock.

Ma 128.
Homological Algebra.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Math 120 abc or instructor's permission.
This course introduces standard concepts and techniques in homological algebra. Topics will include Abelian and additive categories; Chain complexes, homotopies and the homotopy category; Derived functors; Yoneda extension and its ring structure; Homological dimension and Koszul complexe; Spectral sequences; Triangulated categories, and the derived category. Not offered 2021-22.

Bi/BE 129.
The Biology and Treatment of Cancer.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The first part of the course will concern the basic biology of cancer, covering oncogenes, tumor suppressors, tumor cell biology, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and other topics. The second part will concern newer information on cancer genetics and other topics, taught from the primary research literature. The last part of the course will concern treatments, including chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy, and immunotherapy. Textbook: The Biology of Cancer, 2nd edition, by Robert Weinberg. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructors: Zinn, Campbell.

Ch/BMB 129.
Introduction to Biophotonics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc and Ch 125 recommended.
This course will cover basic optics and introduce modern optical spectroscopy principles and microscopy techniques. Topics include molecular spectroscopy, linear and nonlinear florescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, coherent microscopy, single-molecule spectroscopy, and super-resolution imaging.
Instructor: Wei.

Ec 129.
Economic History of the United States.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11.
An examination of certain analytical and quantitative tools and their application to American economic development. Each student is expected to write two substantial papers-drafts will be read by instructor and revised by students. Not offered 2021-2022.

En/VC 129.
Literature/Photography/Facticity.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
"It is the picture of life contrasted with the fact of life, the ideal contrasted with the real, which makes criticism possible," insists Frederick Douglass. This course will take an historical approach to the relationship between literature and photography by examining what Douglass refers to as the contrast between "picture" and "fact" from the advent of photography in the nineteenth century to our present moment. Together, we will think about how each medium creates images, invites different ways of reading or viewing, and makes forms of individual, collective, and political representation possible. We will also examine the ways in which photography and literature shape our understanding of temporality, truth, memory, and history. In addition to our experience of literary and photographic works, theoretical texts on photography will inform the ways of reading and ways of seeing we will develop in this course. Readings may include Boucicault, Douglass, Dunbar, Hartmann, Barthes, Lorde, and Rankine.
Instructor: Hill.

ME/CS/EE 129.
Experimental Robotics.
9 units (3-6-0):
third term.
This course covers the foundations of experimental realization on robotic systems. This includes software infrastructures, e.g., robotic operating systems (ROS), sensor integration, and implementation on hardware platforms. The ideas developed will be integrated onto robotic systems and tested experimentally in the context of class projects.
Instructor: Niemeyer.

Ph 129 abc.
Mathematical Methods of Physics.
9 units (4-0-5):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 2 and Ph 2 abc, or equivalent.
Mathematical methods and their application in physics. First term focuses on group theoretic methods in physics. Second term includes analytic methods such as complex analysis, differential equations, integral equations and transforms, and other applications of real analysis. Third term covers probability and statistics in physics. Each part may be taken independently. Part c not offered 2021-2022. Chen, Chatziioannou.
Instructor: X.

APh/EE 130.
Electromagnetic Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Electromagnetic fields in vacuum: microscopic Maxwell's equations. Monochromatic fields: Rayleigh diffraction formulae, Huyghens principle, Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formula. The Fresnel-Fraunhofer approximation. Electromagnetic field in the presence of matter, spatial averages, macroscopic Maxwell equations. Helmholtz's equation. Group-velocity and group-velocity dispersion. Confined propagation, optical resonators, optical waveguides. Single mode and multimode waveguides. Nonlinear optics. Nonlinear propagation. Second harmonic generation. Parametric amplification.
Instructor: Faraon.

ChE 130.
Biomolecular Engineering Laboratory.
9 units (1-5-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab, ChE 101 (may be taken concurrently) or instructor's permission.
Design, construction, and characterization of engineered biological systems. Students will propose and execute research projects in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology. Emphasis will be on projects that apply rational or library-based design strategies to the control of system behavior.
Instructor: Vicic.

CS 130.
Software Engineering.
9 units (3-3-3):
second and fourth terms.
Prerequisites: CS 2 or equivalent.
This course presents a survey of software engineering principles relevant to all aspects of the software development lifecycle. Students will examine industry best practices in the areas of software specification, development, project management, testing, and release management, including a review of the relevant research literature. Assignments give students the opportunity to explore these topics in depth. Programming assignments use Python and Git, and students should be familiar with Python at a CS1 level, and Git at a CS2/CS3 level, before taking the course.
Instructor: Pinkston.

Ec 130.
Economic History of Europe from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11.
Employs the theoretical and quantitative techniques of economics to help explore and explain the development of the European cultural area between 1000 and 1980. Topics include the rise of commerce, the demographic transition, the Industrial Revolution, and changes in inequality, international trade, social spending, property rights, and capital markets. Each student is expected to write nine weekly essays and a term paper. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 130.
Introduction to Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 or ESE 102 and Ma 2 or equivalent (instructor's permission).
This course is an introduction to the fluid dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, with an emphasis on dynamical concepts that explain the large-scale circulation of both fluids. Starting from the equations of motion, we will develop an understanding of geostrophic and hydrostatic balance, inertia-gravity waves, geostrophic adjustment, potential vorticity, quasi-geostrophic dynamics, Rossby waves, baroclinic instability, and Ekman layers.
Instructor: Callies.

H/HPS 130.
Technology and Environment in America.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
As climate change has become an increasingly heated topic around the world, Americans across political and professional arenas often invoke technology as both a cause and potential solution. In American culture, an enthusiasm for innovation often overshadows the messier ways that humans interact with our surroundings through the artifacts and technologies that we create. In this course, we will examine the interplay between environment and technology in America, from before the arrival of Europeans on the North American continent through present debates about our changing planet. We will consider the boundaries that different groups have drawn between natural and artificial, and how these definitions have shaped the cultural, political, and material landscape of America. How useful are these boundaries? How might challenging them help us rethink America's history and its future? In this seminar, students will practice using the tools and methods of history to make a clear, persuasive argument. Each student will choose a relevant term project topic in consultation with the instructor. Assignments throughout the term will cumulatively build into an original piece of writing grounded in primary and secondary source research. In class, we will read and discuss texts that explore intersections of technology and the environment in American history, both to learn about the substance of these texts but also to gain insight on how to craft effective, readable historical writing. Students will learn how to use archival materials, practice critically analyzing historical texts, and participate in the discussion, debate, and consensus necessary to build a dynamic understanding of the past.
Instructor: Rand.

L 130 abc.
Elementary German.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Grammar fundamentals and their use in aural comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Students who have had German in secondary school or college must consult with the instructor before registering.
Instructor: Aebi.

Ma 130 abc.
Algebraic Geometry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 120 (or Ma 5 plus additional reading).
Plane curves, rational functions, affine and projective varieties, products, local properties, birational maps, divisors, differentials, intersection numbers, schemes, sheaves, general varieties, vector bundles, coherent sheaves, curves and surfaces.
Instructors: Oswal, Yu.

Psy/CNS 130.
Introduction to Human Memory.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The course offers an overview of experimental findings and theoretical issues in the study of human memory. Topics include iconic and echoic memory, working memory, spatial memory, implicit learning and memory; forgetting: facts vs. skills, memory for faces; retrieval: recall vs. recognition, context-dependent memory, semantic memory, spreading activation models and connectionist networks, memory and emotion, infantile amnesia, memory development, and amnesia. Not offered 2021-2022.

SEC 130.
Science Activation: Bringing Science to Society.
6 units (3-0-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: none.
Working with policy makers is more than science communication. It requires a bilateral approach to exploring complex problems and solutions that encompass societal objectives as well as physical requirements. An intellectual understanding of the differences communication norms in the research and policy realms can help scientists make better decisions about how to communicate about their work and engage with policy makers to get it used. This course combines analysis of the differences in communication norms with practical experience in communicating and developing relationships with elected officials and their staffs. Not offered 2021-'22.
Instructor: TBD.

VC 130.
Surveillance.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course examines surveillance, one of the defining features of twenty-first-century life, with wide-ranging implications (from intelligence gathering and biometrics to social media and contemporary art), and a key point of intersection between modern technology and visual culture. Though it applies more broadly, the concept of "surveillance," from the Latin vigilare ("to watch") and the French surveiller ("to watch over"), originated in practices of looking and observation that still define many of its most significant practices today. Building on these etymological roots, we will treat surveillance as, first and foremost, a visual practice and survey the longer history of surveillance (and counter-surveillance) techniques as well as the theories that have emerged to describe its social effects, moral and ethical stakes, and changing legal status.
Instructor: Jacobson.

CDS 131.
Linear Systems Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1b, Ma 2, ACM/IDS 104 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Basic system concepts; state-space and I/O representation. Properties of linear systems, including stability, performance, robustness. Reachability, observability, minimality, state and output-feedback.
Instructor: Chung.

CNS/Psy/Bi 131.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course will serve as an introduction to basic concepts, findings, and theory from the field of behavioral psychology, covering areas such as principles of classical conditioning, blocking and conditioned inhibition, models of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, reinforcement schedules, punishment and avoidance learning. The course will track the development of ideas from the beginnings of behavioral psychology in the early 20th century to contemporary learning theory. Not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: O'Doherty.

CS 131.
Programming Languages.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 4.
CS 131 is a course on programming languages and their implementation. It teaches students how to program in a number of simplified languages representing the major programming paradigms in use today (imperative, object-oriented, and functional). It will also teach students how to build and modify the implementations of these languages. Emphasis will not be on syntax or parsing but on the essential differences in these languages and their implementations. Both dynamically-typed and statically-typed languages will be implemented. Relevant theory will be covered as needed. Implementations will mostly be interpreters, but some features of compilers will be covered if time permits. Enrollment limited to 30 students.
Instructor: Vanier.

EE/APh 131.
Light Interaction with Atomic Systems-Lasers.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: APh/EE 130.
Light-matter interaction, spontaneous and induced transitions in atoms and semiconductors. Absorption, amplification, and dispersion of light in atomic media. Principles of laser oscillation, generic types of lasers including semiconductor lasers, mode-locked lasers. Frequency combs in lasers. The spectral properties and coherence of laser light.
Instructor: Vahala.

En 131.
Poe's Afterlife.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course focuses on Edgar Allan Poe and the considerable influence his works have had on other writers. Authors as diverse as Charles Baudelaire, Jules Verne, Jorge Luis Borges, Vladimir Nabokov, John Barth, and Philip Roth have used Poe's stories as departure points for their own work. We shall begin by reading some of Poe's s classic short stories, including "The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym," "The Purloined Letter," and others. We shall then explore how and why Poe's stories have been so important for authors, despite the fact that his reputation as a great American writer, unlike Hawthorne's and Melville's, for example, is a relatively recent phenomenon.
Instructor: Weinstein.

ESE 131.
Ocean Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 102 and ESE 130, or instructor's permission.
This course gives an in-depth discussion of the fluid dynamics of the world ocean. Building on the concepts developed in ESE 130, this course explores the vertical structure of the wind-driven gyre circulation, thermocline theory, the dynamics of the Southern Ocean, eddies and eddy parameterizations, geostrophic turbulence, submesoscale dynamics, the circulation of the deep ocean, tides, internal waves, and turbulent mixing.
Instructor: Callies.

Ge 131.
Planetary Structure and Evolution.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
A critical assessment of the physical and chemical processes that influence the initial condition, evolution, and current state of planets, including our planet and planetary satellites. Topics to be covered include a short survey of condensed-matter physics as it applies to planetary interiors, remote sensing of planetary interiors, planetary modeling, core formation, physics of ongoing differentiation, the role of mantle convection in thermal evolution, and generation of planetary magnetic fields.
Instructor: Stevenson.

H 131.
History of Extinction.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Humans are in the midst of the sixth mass extinction-the first to be caused by human activity. Extinction has been viewed in changing ways over the past 200 years, and this course takes an interdisciplinary approach to learning about the extinction process from a historical as well as a modern perspective. Our focus will be on the extinction of biological entities, but we will also touch on other systems that have disappeared: languages, technologies, habitats, and ways of living. Central to our endeavors will be asking what it means to live in this time of loss: Should we mourn? And if so, how do we mourn for what many or most of us do not see, but only read about? Finally, we will scrutinize what the practical effects of extinction have been, are, and will be. We will also make at least one visit to a natural history museum to view some extinct species behind the scenes. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Lewis.

MS 131.
Structure and Bonding in Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or introductory quantum mechanics.
Electronic structure and orbitals in atoms. Structure and symmetry of crystals. Reciprocal space and Brillouin zone. Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Bloch states and band theory. Tight binding and plane-waves. Lattice vibrations and lattice waves. Total energy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy in solids. Stability criteria. Bonding and electronic structure in metals, semiconductors, ionic crystals, and transition metal oxides. Point and line defects. Introduction to surfaces and amorphous materials.
Instructor: Bernardi.

APh/EE 132.
Special Topics in Photonics and Optoelectronics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Interaction of light and matter, spontaneous and stimulated emission, laser rate equations, mode-locking, Q-switching, semiconductor lasers. Optical detectors and amplifiers; noise characterization of optoelectronic devices. Propagation of light in crystals, electro-optic effects and their use in modulation of light; introduction to nonlinear optics. Optical properties of nanostructures. Not offered 2021-2022.

CS 132.
Web Development.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS1 or equivalent.
Covers full-stack web development with HTML5, CSS, client-side JS (ES6) and server-side JS (Node.js/Express) for web API development. Concepts including separation of concerns, the client-server relationship, user experience, accessibility, and security will also be emphasized throughout the course. Assignments will alternate between formal and semi-structured student-driven projects, providing students various opportunities to apply material to their individual interests. No prior web development background is required, though students who have prior experience may still benefit from learning best practices and HTML5/ES6 standards.
Instructor: Hovik.

En 132.
After Austen: Nineteenth-Century British Women's Writing.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The Victorian period introduced a huge array of new possibilities and constraints for women of all classes, as it witnessed rapid urbanization and industrialization, a changing conception of marriage and motherhood, and a new set of professional restrictions but also opportunities. This class focuses on novels by and about women, as it seeks to take the measure of these transformations and of a larger culture's reaction to them. How did women imagine and re-imagine themselves and what they wanted? How did notions of femininity and masculinity change? How do the imaginings of the Victorians resonate now? Authors studied may include Eliot, Gaskell, the Brontes, Oliphant, Braddon, and Scheiner.
Instructor: Gilmore.

ESE 132.
Tropical Atmosphere Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 and ESE 130, or instructor's permission.
Phenomenological description of tropical atmospheric circulations at different scales, and theories or models that capture the underlying fundamental dynamics, starting from the large-scale energy balance and moving down to cumulus convection and hurricanes. Topics to be addressed include: large-scale circulations such as the Hadley, Walker, and monsoonal circulations, the intertropical convergence zone, equatorial waves, convectively coupled waves, and hurricanes. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Schneider.

Ge/Ay 132.
Atomic and Molecular Processes in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Fundamental aspects of atomic and molecular spectra that enable one to infer physical conditions in astronomical, planetary, and terrestrial environments. Topics will include the structure and spectra of atoms, molecules, and solids; transition probabilities; photoionization and recombination; collisional processes; gas-phase chemical reactions; and isotopic fractionation. Each topic will be illustrated with applications in astronomy and planetary sciences, ranging from planetary atmospheres and dense interstellar clouds to the early universe. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Blake.

H 132.
Humanistic Ecology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Humans' conceptions of nature have changed dramatically over time. Ecological systems influence human culture, politics, law, and many other spheres, and in turn, humans influence those systems. This class introduces students to the field of humanistic ecology-a discipline that looks to a number of cultural, political, historical and economic elements to better understand the role of ecology in a larger sphere outside of its scientific structure and uses. Humanistic ecology is designed to provide context for the study of ecology, and in a fundamental way, focuses on the appropriate role of humanity in its relationship to nature: what is ethical, or not, what is useful, or not, and a variety of other matters that should be considered when taking a fully three-dimensional view of ecological science. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Lewis.

L 132 abc.
Intermediate German.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 130 abc or equivalent.
Reading of short stories and plays, grammar review, aural and oral drills and exercises, expansion of vocabulary, and practice in reading, writing, and conversational skills. Second and third terms will emphasize written expression, technical/ scientific translation, and literary readings. Students who have studied German elsewhere must consult with the instructor before registering.
Instructor: Aebi.

Ma 132 abc.
Topics in Algebraic Geometry.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
Prerequisites: Ma 130 or instructor's permission.
This course will cover advanced topics in algebraic geometry that will vary from year to year. Topics will be listed on the math option website prior to the start of classes. Previous topics have included geometric invariant theory, moduli of curves, logarithmic geometry, Hodge theory, and toric varieties. This course can be repeated for credit. Not offered 2021-22.

MS 132.
Diffraction and Structure.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission.
Principles of electron, X-ray, and neutron diffraction with applications to materials characterization. Imaging with electrons, and diffraction contrast of crystal defects. Kinematical theory of diffraction: effects of strain, size, disorder, and temperature. Correlation functions in solids, with introduction to space-time correlation functions.
Instructor: Fultz.

PS 132.
Formal Theories in Political Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: PS 12 and Ec/PS 172.
Axiomatic structure and behavioral interpretations of game theoretic and social choice models and models of political processes based on them.
Instructor: Agranov.

Psy/CNS 132.
Computational Reinforcement-learning in Biological and Non-biological Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Reinforcement-learning concerns the computational principles by which animals and artificial agents can learn to select actions in their environment in order to maximize their future rewards. Over the past 50 years there has been a rich interplay between the development and application of reinforcement-learning models in artificial intelligence, and the investigation of reinforcement-learning in biological systems, including humans. This course will review this rich literature, covering the psychology of animal-learning, the neurobiology of reward and reinforcement, and the theoretical basis and application of reinforcement-learning models to biological and non-biological systems. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 133.
Global Atmospheric Circulations.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 and ESE 130, or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the global-scale fluid dynamics of atmospheres, beginning with a phenomenological overview of observed circulations on Earth and other planets and leading to currently unsolved problems. Topics include constraints on atmospheric circulations and zonal winds from angular momentum balance; Rossby wave generation, propagation, and dissipation and their roles in the maintenance of global circulations; Hadley circulations and tropical-extratropical interactions; energy cycle and thermodynamic efficiency of atmospheric circulations. The course focuses on Earth's atmosphere but explores a continuum of possible planetary circulations and relationships among them as parameters such as the planetary rotation rate chance. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge/Ay 133.
The Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Review current theoretical ideas and observations pertaining to the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Topics to be covered include low-mass star formation, the protoplanetary disk, accretion and condensation in the solar nebula, the formation of gas giants, meteorites, the outer solar system, giant impacts, extrasolar planetary systems.
Instructor: Batygin.

H 133.
Forests and Humans.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Forests - which cover 31 percent of the world's land surface - have played essential roles in enhancing the planet's biodiversity. Forests have also served humans in numerous and often controversial ways, and have also been subjected to dramatic change through human activity. How well have we served forests, as well as being served by them? The class will cover the growth and use of forests from a humanistic and historic perspective, as well as discussions about the role of fire in forests, with a particular emphasis on the unprecedented forest fires in California in the past several years and the global ecological implications.
Instructor: Lewis.

ME/CS/EE 133 abc.
Robotics.
9 units (3-3-3):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: ME/CS/EE 129, may be taken concurrently, or with permission of instructor.
The course develops the core concepts of robotics. The first quarter focuses on classical robotic manipulation, including topics in rigid body kinematics and dynamics. It develops planar and 3D kinematic formulations and algorithms for forward and inverse computations, Jacobians, and manipulability. The second quarter transitions to planning, navigation, and perception. Topics include configuration space, sample-based planners, A* and D* algorithms, to achieve collision-free motions. The third quarter discusses advanced material, for example grasping and dexterous manipulation using multi-fingered hands, or autonomous behaviors, or human-robot interactions. The lectures will review appropriate analytical techniques and may survey the current research literature. Course work will focus on an independent research project chosen by the student.
Instructor: Niemeyer.

MS 133.
Kinetic Processes in Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: APh 105 b or ChE/Ch 164, or instructor's permission.
Kinetic master equation, uncorrelated and correlated random walk, diffusion. Mechanisms of diffusion and atom transport in solids, liquids, and gases. Coarsening of microstructures. Nonequilibrium processing of materials.
Instructor: Greer.

Psy 133.
Computation, Cognition and Consciousness.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course will critically examine the impact of recent advances in computational neuroscience for central problems of philosophy of mind. Beginning with a historical overview of computationalism (the thesis that mental states are computational states), the course will examine how psychological explanation may be understood in computational terms across a variety of levels of description, from sub-neuronal and single neuroncomputation to circuit and network levels. Specific issues will include: whether computation provides unifying psychological principles across species; whether specific mental states such as pain are computational states; digital/analog computation, dynamical systems, and mental representation; whether conscious experience can be understood as a computational process. Not offered 2021-2022.

En 134.
The Career of Herman Melville.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The course will analyze Melville's career starting with Typee and ending with Billy Budd. Special attention will be given to Moby-Dick and Pierre. The centrality of Melville's position in American literature will be considered from a variety of perspectives, including aesthetics, representations of race, class, and gender, the role of the audience, and connections with other authors.
Instructor: Weinstein.

ESE 134.
Cloud and Boundary Layer Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the dynamics controlling boundary layers and clouds and how they may change with climate, from a phenomenological overview of cloud and boundary layer morphologies to closure theories for turbulence and convection. Topics include similarity theories for boundary layers; mixed-layer models; moist thermodynamics and stability; stratocumulus and trade-cumulus boundary layers; shallow cumulus convection and deep convection.
Instructor: Schneider.

H 134.
Birds, Evolution, Speciation and Society.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The cultural, scientific, social and political roles of birds make them an excellent lens through which to view humans' interactions with the natural world. This course will cover our changing understandings of birds, starting with hawking and falconry in earlier centuries, through the discovery of new species, up through Darwinian understandings of speciation and evolution, and continuing up to present scientific understandings of birds' capabilities and their ties to humankind, as well as to other anchors in the natural world. We will take a strong biographical as well as avian approach to understanding key personalities who furthered our understandings of avian science.
Instructor: Lewis.

ME/CS/EE 134.
Robotic Systems.
9 units (3-6-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: ME/CS/EE 129, may be taken concurrently, or with permission of instructor.
This course builds up, and brings to practice, the elements of robotic systems at the intersection of hardware, kinematics and control, computer vision, and autonomous behaviors. It presents selected topics from these domains, focusing on their integration into a full sense-think-act robot. The lectures will drive team-based projects, progressing from building custom robots to writing software and implementing all necessary aspects. Working systems will autonomously operate and complete their tasks during final demonstrations.
Instructor: Niemeyer.

Ch 135.
Chemical Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc and Ch 41 abc, or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the kinetics and dynamics of chemical reactions. Topics include scattering cross sections, rate constants, intermolecular potentials, classical two-body elastic scattering, reactive scattering, nonadiabatic processes, statistical theories of unimolecular reactions, photochemistry, laser and molecular beam methods, theory of electron transfer, solvent effects, condensed phase dynamics, surface reactions, isotope effects. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ec 135.
Economics of Uncertainty and Information.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11.
An analysis of the effects of uncertainty and information on economic decisions. Included among the topics are individual and group decision making under uncertainty, expected utility maximization, insurance, financial markets and speculation, product quality and advertisement, and the value of information.
Instructor: Agranov.

EE/CS/EST 135.
Power System Analysis.
9 units (3-3-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: EE 44, Ma 2, or equivalent.
Basic power system analysis: phasor representation, 3-phase transmission system, transmission line models, transformer models, per-unit analysis, network matrix, power flow equations, power flow algorithms, optimal powerflow (OPF) problems, swing dynamics and stability. Current research topics such as (may vary each year): convex relaxation of OPF, frequency regulation, energy functions and contraction regions, volt/var control, storage optimization, electric vehicles charging, demand response.
Instructor: Low.

En/VC 135.
Dickens's London.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Charles Dickens and London have perhaps the most famous relationship of any writer and city in English. In this course, we will investigate both the London Dickens knew, and the portrait of the city that he painted, by reading one of Dickens's great mid-career novels alongside a selection of contemporary texts and images and secondary historical sources. We will think about the gap-or overlap- between history and fiction, the idea of the novelist as alternative historian, and the idea of the novel as historical document. Historical topics covered may include: the development of the Victorian police force; plague and public health; Victorian poverty; colonialism and imperialism; Dickens and his illustrators; Victorian exhibition and museum culture; and marriage and the cult of domesticity, among others. Students will practice both textual and visual analysis skills. In addition to written work, students should expect to be responsible for making a short research presentation at some point in the term. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmore.

ESE 135.
Topics in Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 or ESE 102, or instructor's permission or equivalent.
A lecture and discussion course on current research in atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Topics covered vary from year to year and may include global circulations of planetary atmospheres, geostrophic turbulence, atmospheric convection and cloud dynamics, wave dynamics and large-scale circulations in the tropics, marine physical-biogeochemical interactions, and dynamics of the El NiÃ±o Southern Oscillation. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Callies.

H 135.
War, Conquest, and Empires.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course will use historical examples of war and conquest and ask why some periods of history were times of warfare and why certain countries developed a comparative advantage in violence. The examples will come from the history of Europe and Asia, from ancient times up until World War I, and the emphasis throughout will be on the interplay between politics, military technology, and social conditions.
Instructor: Hoffman.

Ma 135 ab.
Arithmetic Geometry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 130.
The course deals with aspects of algebraic geometry that have been found useful for number theoretic applications. Topics will be chosen from the following: general cohomology theories (Ã©tale cohomology, flat cohomology, motivic cohomology, or p-adic Hodge theory), curves and Abelian varieties over arithmetic schemes, moduli spaces, Diophantine geometry, algebraic cycles.
Instructor: Flach.

Ph 135.
Introduction to Condensed Matter.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 ab or equivalent or instructor's permission.
This course is an introduction to condensed matter which covers electronic properties of solids, including band structures, and transport. In addition, the course will introduce topological band-structure effects, covering Berry phase, the Thouless pump, and topological insulators. Ph 135 is continued by Ph/APh 223 ab in the winter and spring terms.
Instructor: Refael.

PS 135.
Analyzing Legislative Elections.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The purpose of this course is to understand legislative elections. The course will study, for example, what role money plays in elections and why incumbents do better at the polls. It will also examine how electoral rules impact the behavior both of candidates and voters, and will explore some of the consequences of legislative elections, such as divided government. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ec 136.
Behavioral Decision Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3. Ec 121 is recommended as background, but is not a prerequisite.
This course is an intermediate-level class on individual-level theory. The method used posits precise assumptions about general behavior (axioms) then finds equivalent ways to model them in mathematically convenient terms. We will cover both the traditional â€œrationalâ€™â€™ approach, and more recent â€œbehavioralâ€™â€™ models that incorporate psychological principles, in domains of intertemporal choice, random (stochastic) choice, menu choice, and revealed preferences. Students are expected to understand rigorous mathematical proofs. The class also includes serious discussion of the value of experimental evidence motivating new theories. Not offered 2021-2022.

EE/Ma/CS/IDS 136.
Topics in Information Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3 or ACM/EE/IDS 116 or CMS 117 or Ma/ACM/IDS 140a.
This class introduces information measures such as entropy, information divergence, mutual information, information density from a probabilistic point of view, and discusses the relations of those quantities to problems in data compression and transmission, statistical inference, language modeling, game theory and control. Topics include information projection, data processing inequalities, sufficient statistics, hypothesis testing, single-shot approach in information theory, large deviations. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Kostina.

En 136.
The Fiction of Charles Dickens.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
An overview of the Great Inimitable's fiction, concentrating on four texts representative of different phases of his novel-writing career and their relationship to the changing world of Victorian Britain: Oliver Twist, Dombey and Son, Bleak House, Our Mutual Friend. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 136.
Climate Models.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 or ESE 102 or instructor's permission.
Introduction to climate models, from numerical methods for the underlying equations of motion to parameterization schemes for processes such as clouds, sea ice, and land hydrology. The course will move from an overview of modeling concepts to the practice of climate modeling, with hands-on exercises in running a climate model and analyzing and understanding its output. It will enable students to design their own model experiments and to evaluate modeling results critically. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Schneider.

Ge 136 abc.
Regional Field Geology of the Southwestern United States.
3 units (1-0-2):
first, second, or third terms, by announcement.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab or Ge 101, or instructor's permission.
Includes approximately three days of weekend field tri0s into areas displaying highly varied geology. Each student is assigned the major responsibility of being the resident expert on a pertinent subject for each trip. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Kirschvink.

H 136.
Caltech in the Archives.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This class will introduce students to the methods of archival work in the humanities and social sciences. Over the course of the quarter students will receive an introduction to factors surrounding the collection, organization, and use of various types of archives as a background to several small-scale projects working in an archival collection of their own choosing. The seminar will center around weekly projects and synthetic analytical essays about the archival process and archival discoveries. Students hoping to combine their course work with an archive-based research paper may sign up for a separate independent study and conduct research concurrently, with instructor approval.
Instructor: Dykstra.

HPS/Pl 136.
Happiness and the Good Life.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course will critically examine the emerging science of happiness and positive psychology, its philosophical assumptions, methodology, and its role in framing social policy and practice. Topics to be addressed include: the relation between happiness as subjective well-being or life satisfaction and philosophical visions of the good life; the relation between happiness and virtue; the causes of happiness and the role of life experience; happiness and economic notions of human welfare, attempts to measure happiness, and the prospect for an economics of happiness; happiness as a brain state and whether brain science can illuminate the nature of happiness; mental illness and psychiatry in light of positive psychology.
Instructor: Quartz.

Ph 136 abc.
Applications of Classical Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 106 ab or equivalent.
Applications of classical physics to topics of interest in contemporary "macroscopic'' physics. Continuum physics and classical field theory; elasticity and hydrodynamics; plasma physics; magnetohydrodynamics; thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; gravitation theory, including general relativity and cosmology; modern optics. Content will vary from year to year, depending on the instructor. An attempt will be made to organize the material so that the terms may be taken independently. Ph 136a will focus on thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, random processes, and optics. Ph136b will focus on fluid dynamics, MHD, turbulence, and plasma physics. Ph 136c will cover an introduction to general relativity. Offered in alternate years. Not offered 2021-22.

CS 137.
Algorithms in the Real World.
12 units (2-9-1):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 24.
This course introduces algorithms in the context of their usage in the real world. The course covers compression, advanced data structures, numerical algorithms, cryptography, computer algebra, and parallelism. The goal of the course is for students to see how to use theoretical algorithms in real-world contexts, focusing both on correctness and the nitty-gritty details and optimizations. Implementations focus on two orthogonal avenues: speed (for which C is used) and algorithmic thinking (for which Python is used).
Instructor: Blank.

En 137.
African American Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course analyzes some of the great works of American literature written by African Americans. This body of writing gives rise to two crucial questions: How does African American literature constitute a literary tradition of its own? How is that tradition inextricable from American literary history? From slave narratives to Toni Morrison's Beloved, from the Harlem Renaissance to Alice Walker, from Ralph Ellison to Walter Mosley, African American literature has examined topics as diverse and important as race relations, class identification, and family life. We shall analyze these texts not only in relation to these cultural issues, but also in terms of their aesthetic and formal contributions. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 137.
Polar Oceanography.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 131 or instructor's permission.
This course focuses on high latitude ocean processes related to the Earth's oceans and their interaction with the cryosphere, including glaciers, ice shelves and sea ice. The course starts with introductory lectures related to regional circulation features, water mass modification and ice dynamics. The second half of the course will focus on a single topic, with input from the students, and will be explored in detail through the scientific literature and through individual projects. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Thompson.

Ge/Ay 137.
Planetary Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 106 abc, ACM 95/100 ab.
A quantitative review of dynamical processes that characterize long-term evolution of planetary systems. An understanding of orbit-orbit resonances, spin-orbit resonances, secular exchange of angular momentum and the onset of chaos will be developed within the framework of Hamiltonian perturbation theory. Additionally, dissipative effects associated with tidal and planet-disk interactions will be considered.
Instructor: Batygin.

H 137.
Criminals, Outlaws, and Justice in a Thousand Years of Chinese History.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course explores the shifting boundary between discourses of crime and disobedience over the last millennium or so of Chinese history. It offers fictional, philosophical, political, propagandistic, official, and personal writings on crime and those who commit it as a basis for a wide-ranging series of discussions about when breaking the law is good, when breaking the law is bad, and who gets to decide where the line between a criminal and an outlaw should be drawn. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dykstra.

Mu 137.
History I: Music History to 1750.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The course traces the history of music from ancient Greece to the time of Bach and Handel. A survey of the contributions by composers such as Machaut, Josquin, and Palestrina will lead to a more in-depth look at the music of Monteverdi, Purcell, Corelli, Vivaldi, and the two most important composers of the high baroque, Bach and Handel.
Instructors: Brown, M.

Ph/APh 137 abc.
Atoms and Photons.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 ab or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
This course will provide an introduction to the interaction of atomic systems with photons. The main emphasis is on laying the foundation for understanding current research that utilizes cold atoms and molecules as well as quantized light fields. First term: resonance phenomena, atomic/molecular structure, and the semi-classical interaction of atoms/molecules with static and oscillating electromagnetic fields. Techniques such as laser cooling/trapping, coherent manipulation and control of atomic systems. Second term: quantization of light fields, quantized light matter interaction, open system dynamics, entanglement, master equations, quantum jump formalism. Applications to cavity QED, optical lattices, and Rydberg arrays. Third term [not offered 2021-2022]: Topics in contemporary research. Possible areas include introduction to ultracold atoms, atomic clocks, searches for fundamental symmetry violations, synthetic quantum matter, and solid state quantum optics platforms. The emphasis will be on reading primary and contemporary literature to understand ongoing experiments.
Instructors: Hutzler, Endres.

APh/Ph 138 ab.
Quantum Hardware and Techniques.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term, a and b offered in alternating years.
Prerequisites: Ph 125abc or Ph 127ab or Ph137ab or instructor's permission.
This class covers multiple quantum technology platforms and related theoretical techniques, and will provide students with broad knowledge in quantum science and engineering. It will be split into three-week modules covering: applications of near-term quantum computers, superconducting qubits, trapped atoms and ions, topological quantum matter, solid state quantum bits, tensor-product states.
Instructors: Faraon, Minnich.

CS 138.
Computer Algorithms.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course is identical to CS 38. Only graduate students for whom this is the first algorithms course are allowed to register for CS 138. See the CS 38 entry for prerequisites and course description.
Instructor: SchrÃ¶der.

En 138.
Twain and His Contemporaries.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course will study the divergent theories of realism that arose in the period after the Civil War and before World War I. Authors covered may include Howells, James, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Twain, Sarah Orne Jewett, Jacob Riis, Stephen Crane, and W. E. B. DuBois. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE 138.
Ocean Turbulence and Wave Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE 131 or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the dynamics of ocean mixing and transport with a focus on how these processes feedback on large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Topics include: vorticity and potential vorticity dynamics, planetary and topographic Rossby waves, inertia-gravity waves, mesoscale eddies, turbulent transport of tracers, eddy diffusivity in turbulent flows, frontogenesis and submesoscale dynamics, diapycnal mixing. This course will also include a discussion of observational techniques for measuring mesoscale and small-scale processes in the ocean. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

H 138.
The Way.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course introduces students to some of the seminal writings on the meaning of life, the essentials of rulership, and the place of the individual in the universe from the history of Chinese thought and philosophy. Students are given selected readings from several schools of thought in Chinese history, with an emphasis on the formative Warring States era (the period of the Hundred Schools of classical Chinese philosophy). Instead of being asked to write expository or argumentative essays, participants in this seminar will be introduced to analyzing and presenting texts using the method of annotation. Exposure to the principles of annotation will provide students with a new approach to analyzing and talking about texts both within a humanistic context and beyond.
Instructor: Dykstra.

HPS/Pl 138.
Human Nature and Society.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course will investigate how assumptions about human nature shape political philosophy, social institutions, and social policy. The course will begin with a historical perspective, examining the work of such political philosophers as Plato, Locke, Rousseau, and Marx, along with such psychologists as Freud and Skinner. Against this historical perspective, it will then turn to examine contemporary views on human nature from cognitive neuroscience and evolutionary psychology and explore their potential implications for political philosophy and social policy. Among topics to be discussed will be the nature of human sociality and cooperation; economic systems and assumptions regarding production and consumption; and propaganda, marketing, and manipulation. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Quartz.

Mu 138.
History II: Music History from 1750 to 1850.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Music composed between 1750 and 1850 is among the most popular concert music of today and the most recorded music in the classical tradition. This course will focus on developments in European music during this critical period. An in-depth look at the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven along with the cultural and societal influences that shaped their lives will be the primary focus. Music of composers immediately preceding and following them (the Bach sons, Schubert, Chopin, and others) will also be surveyed.
Instructors: Brown, M.

CMS/CS/IDS 139.
Analysis and Design of Algorithms.
12 units (3-0-9):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 3, Ma/CS 6a, CS 21, CS 38/138, and ACM/EE/IDS 116 or CMS/ACM/IDS 113 or equivalent.
This course develops core principles for the analysis and design of algorithms. Basic material includes mathematical techniques for analyzing performance in terms of resources, such as time, space, and randomness. The course introduces the major paradigms for algorithm design, including greedy methods, divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, linear and semidefinite programming, randomized algorithms, and online learning.
Instructor: Vidick.

Ge/ESE 139.
Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ph 2, or instructor's permission.
The basic physics of absorption and scattering of light by molecules, aerosols, and clouds. Theory of radiative transfer. Band models, correlated-k distributions and other approximate methods. Solar insolation, thermal emission, heating rates and radiances. Applications to Earth, Planets and Exoplanets. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Yung.

H 139.
Translation Theory and Practice (Chinese Historical Sources Seminar).
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This seminar will introduce students to the problems and practices of historical translation for academic purposes, with a focus on primary materials from Chinese history. Students will take responsibility for an individual translation project, participate in seminar discussions and collaborative projects to improve the translations being made, and discuss the philosophical and methodological questions at the heart of the practice of translation. Advanced proficiency in written Chinese is required. Students who write analyses (4,000 words) of the sources being translated may enroll in this class as H 139, which satisfies the advanced humanities credit. Not offered 2021-2022
Instructor: Dykstra.

HPS/Pl 139.
Human Nature, Welfare, & Sustainability.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Policy makers since at least the time of Jeremy Bentham have argued that welfare maximization ought to be the goal of social policy. When this includes perfectionist notions of realizing one's capacities, economic prosperity, prosocial norms, and democratization have all coincided as key drivers of human development. Although the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development envisions worldwide inclusive and sustainable economic growth, there is substantial debate regarding the extent to which sustainability and economic growth are compatible. This course will critically examine the links between human welfare, economic growth, and material culture to better understand why economic growth and welfare have been taken to be intertwined - and the extent to which they could be decoupled. Our starting point will be the Brundtland report, its conception of welfare based on human needs, and subsequent articulations of needs-based theories of human welfare, including evolutionary and biological accounts that include social comparison processes such as esteem, status, and recognition. This will provide us with a theoretical framework for investigating the role of material culture in satisfying these needs and whether they may be satisfied by less resource-intense routes.
Instructor: Quartz.

L 139.
Translation Theory and Practice (Chinese Historical Sources Seminar).
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This seminar will introduce students to the problems and practices of historical translation for academic purposes, with a focus on primary materials from Chinese history. Students will take responsibility for an individual translation project, participate in seminar discussions and collaborative projects to improve the translations being made, and discuss the philosophical and methodological questions at the heart of the practice of translation. Advanced proficiency in written Chinese is required. Students who write analyses (4,000 words) of the sources being translated may enroll in this class as H 139, which satisfies the advanced humanities credit. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dykstra.

Mu 139.
History III: Music History from 1850 to the Present.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
From the end of the 19th century to the present day, classical music has undergone the fastest and most radical changes in its history. The course explores these changes, tracing the development of various musical styles, compositional methods, and music technologies while examining acknowledged masterpieces from throughout the period.
Instructor: Brow.

Ph 139.
Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 ab or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
This course provides an introduction to particle physics which includes Standard Model, Feynman diagrams, matrix elements, electroweak theory, QCD, gauge theories, the Higgs mechanism, neutrino mixing, astro-particle physics/cosmology, accelerators, experimental techniques, important historical and recent results, physics beyond the Standard Model, and major open questions in the field.
Instructor: Weinstein.

PS 139.
Comparative Politics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: PS 12.
This course offers a broad introduction to the theoretical and empirical research in comparative political economy. An emphasis will be placed on the parallel process of political and economic development and its consequences on current democratic political institutions such as: electoral rules, party systems, parliamentary versus presidential governments, legislatures, judicial systems, and bureaucratic agencies as exemplified in central bank politics. We will study the differential impact of these political institutions on the type of policies they implement and the economic outcomes they produce. The main objective of the course will be to assess the robustness of the analyzed theories in light of their empirical support, coming mainly from statistical analysis.
Instructor: Lopez-Moctezuma.

Ch/ChE 140 ab.
Principles and Applications of Semiconductor Photoelectrochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: APh/EE 9 ab or instructor's permission.
The properties and photoelectrochemistry of semiconductors and semiconductor/liquid junction solar cells will be discussed. Topics include optical and electronic properties of semiconductors; electronic properties of semiconductor junctions with metals, liquids, and other semiconductors, in the dark and under illumination, with emphasis on semiconductor/liquid junctions in aqueous and nonaqueous media. Problems currently facing semiconductor/liquid junctions and practical applications of these systems will be highlighted. Part a not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Lewis (b).

Ec 140.
Economic Progress.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11; Ec 122 recommended.
This course examines the contemporary literature on economic growth and development from both a theoretical and historical/empirical perspective. Topics include a historical overview of economic progress and the lack thereof; simple capital accumulation models; equilibrium/ planning models of accumulation; endogenous growth models; empirical tests of convergence; the measurement and role of technological advancement; and the role of trade, institutions, property rights, human capital, and culture.
Instructor: Hoffman.

En 140.
Literature in the Marketplace of Books.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
How did early readers experience the printed page? How did changes in the conditions of book production shape this experience? And what can modern readers learn of these experiences through our own technologies? In this course, we will explore these questions and ask how our understanding of literature changes when books are considered in terms of their physical characteristics and in relation to the broader marketplace of which they were a part. Our inquiry will be organized around important developments in the history of the early printed book: the re-discovery of classical texts by humanists; the mass production of religious books during the Protestant Reformation; the emergence of political pamphlets and newsbooks during the English Civil War; and the rise of new forms of literature like playtexts, romances, and novels. The course will include work with rare materials at the Henry E. Huntington Library as well as an introduction to the digital tools that scholars are developing to analyze books at scale.
Instructor: Koch.

Ge 140 a.
Stable Isotope Geochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An introduction to the principles and applications of stable isotope systems to earth science, emphasizing the physical, chemical and biological processes responsible for isotopic fractionation, and their underlying chemical-physics principles. Topics include the kinetic theory of gases and related isotopic fractionations, relevant subjects in quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics, equations of motion of charged particles in electrical and magnetic fields (the basis of mass spectrometry), the photochemistry of isotopic species, and applications to the earth, environmental and planetary sciences. Taught in odd years; alternates with Ge 140b. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Eiler.

Ge 140 b.
Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
An introduction to the principles and applications of radiogenic isotope systems in earth science, with emphasis on the applications of these systems, from dating to forensic. Topics to be covered include nucleosynthesis, radioactive decay phenomena, geochronology, geochronometry, isotopes as tracers of solar system and planetary evolution, extinct radioactivities, cosmogenic isotopes and forensic geochemistry. Taught in even years; alternates with Ge 140a. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Tissot.

Ge/ESE 140 c.
Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 140a or equivalent.
An introduction to the use of stable isotopes in biogeochemistry, intended to give interested students the necessary background to understand applications in a variety of fields, from modern carbon cycling to microbial ecology to records of Ancient Earth. Topics include the principles of isotope distribution in reaction networks; isotope effects in enzyme-mediated reactions, and in metabolism and biosynthesis; characteristic fractionations accompanying carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling; and applications of stable isotopes in the biogeosciences. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Sessions.

Ma/ACM/IDS 140 ab.
Probability.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: For 140 a, Ma 108 b is strongly recommended.
Overview of measure theory. Random walks and the Strong law of large numbers via the theory of martingales and Markov chains. Characteristic functions and the central limit theorem. Poisson process and Brownian motion. Topics in statistics.
Instructors: Vigneaux, Tamuz.

Ay 141 abc.
Research Conference in Astronomy.
3 units (1-0-2):
first, second, third terms.
Oral reports on current research in astronomy, providing students an opportunity for practice in the organization and presentation of technical material. A minimum of two presentations will be expected from each student each year. In addition, students are encouraged to participate in a public-level representation of the same material for posting to an outreach website. This course fulfills the option communication requirement and is required of all astronomy graduate students who have passed their preliminary exams. It is also recommended for astronomy seniors. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors: Hallinan, Phinney, Martin.

CDS 141.
Network Control Systems.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Variety of case studies and projects from control, communication and computing in complex tech, bio, neuro, eco, and socioeconomic networks, particularly smartgrid, internet, sensorimotor control, cell biology, medical physiology, and human and animal social organization. Emphasis on leveraging universal laws and architectures but adding domain specific details. Can be taken after CDS 231 (to see applications of the theory) or before (to motivate the theory).
Instructor: Doyle.

ChE 141.
Data Science for Chemical Systems.
9 units (1-2-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ChE 15, ACM/IDS 104.
Through short lectures, in-class activities, and problem sets, students learn and use methods in data science to complete projects focused on (i) descriptive and predictive analyses of chemical processes and (ii) Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR). Topics covered may include six sigma; SPC & SQC; time-series analysis; data preprocessing; dimensionality reduction; supervised, reinforcement, and unsupervised learning; decision tree & clustering methods; univariate and multivariate regression; and visualization. Python is the programming language of instruction.
Instructor: Vicic.

CS 141.
Hack Society: Projects from the Public Sector.
9 units (0-0-9):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS/IDS 142, 143, CMS/CS/EE/IDS 144, or permission from instructor.
There is a large gap between the public and private sectors' effective use of technology. This gap presents an opportunity for the development of innovative solutions to problems faced by society. Students will develop technology-based projects that address this gap. Course material will offer an introduction to the design, development, and analysis of digital technology with examples derived from services typically found in the public sector. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Ralph.

Ge 141.
Isotope Cosmochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Instructor's permission.
An introduction to the study of the origin, abundances and distribution of the elements and their isotopes in the Universe, with emphasis on the isotopic constraints into the conditions, events and processes that shaped our Solar System. Topics to be covered include: cosmology and the age of the Universe, the age of the Milky Way and the duration of nucleosynthesis, the fundamentals of isotopic fractionations, the key roles of isotopic anomalies in understanding Solar System dynamics, early Solar System chronology from short- and long-lived nuclei, chondritic meteorite components as clues to solar nebula and asteroid evolution, as well as planetary formation and chronology (e.g., Moon, Mars, Earth). Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Tissot.

MS 141.
Introduction to Computational Methods for Science and Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission.
An introduction to basic methods and code development tools for scientific computing in the Python language, including coding and visualization. Topics include: introduction to Python and its packages Matplotlib, Numpy and SciPy. Numerical precision and sources of error. Root-finding and optimization. Numerical differentiation and integration. Discrete Fourier transforms. Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Finite-difference methods for partial differential equations. Introduction to numerical methods for solving linear systems and eigenvalue problems. If time permits: selected topics on data analysis with NumPy, Pandas and Matplotlib. Students will develop numerical calculations in the homework and in a final project.
Instructor: Bernardi.

PS 141 ab.
A History of Budgetary Politics in the United States.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
This class will examine budgetary conflict at key junctures in U.S. history. Topics include the struggle to establish a viable fiscal system in the early days of the Republic, the ante bellum tariff, the "pension politics" of the post-Civil War era, the growth of the American welfare state, and the battle over tax and entitlement reform in the 1980s and 1990s.
Instructor: Kiewiet.

Ay 142.
Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
The student should consult a member of the department and have a definite program of research outlined. Approval by the student's adviser must be obtained before registering. 36 units of Ay 142 or Ay 143 required for candidacy for graduate students. Graded pass/fail.

ChE 142.
Challenges in Data Science for Chemical Systems.
9 units (1-0-8):
third term.
Prerequisites: ChE 141.
Student groups complete a one-term, data-science project that addresses an instructor-approved chemical engineering challenge. The project may be an original research idea; related to work by a research group at the Institute; an entry in a relevant national/regional contest; a response to an industry relationship; or other meaningful opportunity. There is no lecture, but students participate in weekly progress updates. A student may not select a project too similar to research completed to fulfill requirements for ChE 80 or ChE 90abc. Not offered 2021-2022.

CS/IDS 142.
Distributed Computing.
9 units (3-2-4):
first term.
Prerequisites: CS 24, CS 38.
Programming distributed systems. Mechanics for cooperation among concurrent agents. Programming sensor networks and cloud computing applications. Applications of machine learning and statistics by using parallel computers to aggregate and analyze data streams from sensors.
Instructor: Chandy.

ESE/Ge 142.
Aquatic Chemistry of Natural Waters.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 1 or instructor's permission.
Inorganic chemistry of natural waters with an emphasis on equilibrium solutions to problems in rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Topics will include, acid-base chemistry, precipitation, complexation, redox reactions, and surface chemistry. Examples will largely be drawn from geochemistry and geobiology. Selected topics in kinetics will be covered based on interest and time.
Instructor: Adkins.

H/L 142.
Perspectives on History through Russian Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
The Russian intelligentsia registered the arrival of modern urban society with a highly articulate sensitivity, perhaps because these changes-industrialization, the breakdown of traditional hierarchies and social bonds, the questioning of traditional beliefs-came to Russia so suddenly. This gives their writings a paradigmatic quality; the modern dilemmas that still haunt us are made so eloquently explicit in them that they have served as models for succeeding generations of writers and social critics. This course explores these writings (in English translation) against the background of Russian society, focusing especially on particular works of Chekhov, Dostoevsky, Goncharov, Tolstoy, and Turgenev. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dennison.

Ma/ACM 142 ab.
Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 108; Ma 109 is desirable.
The mathematical theory of ordinary and partial differential equations, including a discussion of elliptic regularity, maximal principles, solubility of equations. The method of characteristics.
Instructors: Angelopoulos, Isett.

MS 142.
Application of Diffraction Techniques in Materials Science.
9 units (2-3-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: Instructor's permission.
Applications of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods to the structural characterization of materials. Emphasis is on the analysis of polycrystalline materials but some discussion of single crystal methods is also presented. Techniques include quantitative phase analysis, crystalline size measurement, lattice parameter refinement, internal stress measurement, quantification of preferred orientation (texture) in materials, Rietveld refinement, and determination of structural features from small angle scattering. Homework assignments will focus on analysis of diffraction data. Samples of interest to students for their thesis research may be examined where appropriate. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 143.
Reading and Independent Study.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
The student should consult a member of the department and have a definite program of reading and independent study outlined. Approval by the student's adviser must be obtained before registering. 36 units of Ay 142 or Ay 143 required for candidacy for graduate students. Graded pass/fail.

Ch 143.
NMR Spectroscopy for Structural Identification.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc.
This course will address both one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques in NMR spectroscopy which are essential to elucidating structures of organic and organometallic samples. Dynamic NMR phenomena, multinuclear, paramagnetic and NOE effects will also be covered. An extensive survey of multipulse NMR methods will also contribute to a clear understanding of two-dimensional experiments. (Examples for Varian NMR instrumentation will be included.)
Instructor: Virgil.

CS/EE/IDS 143.
Communication Networks.
9 units (3-3-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 3, CS 24 and CS 38, or instructor permission.
This course focuses on the link layer (two) through the transport layer (four) of Internet protocols. It has two distinct components, analytical and systems. In the analytical part, after a quick summary of basic mechanisms on the Internet, we will focus on congestion control and explain: (1) How to model congestion control algorithms? (2) Is the model well defined? (3) How to characterize the equilibrium points of the model? (4) How to prove the stability of the equilibrium points? We will study basic results in ordinary differential equations, convex optimization, Lyapunov stability theorems, passivity theorems, gradient descent, contraction mapping, and Nyquist stability theory. We will apply these results to prove equilibrium and stability properties of the congestion control models and explore their practical implications. In the systems part, the students will build a software simulator of Internet routing and congestion control algorithms. The goal is not only to expose students to basic analytical tools that are applicable beyond congestion control, but also to demonstrate in depth the entire process of understanding a physical system, building mathematical models of the system, analyzing the models, exploring the practical implications of the analysis, and using the insights to improve the design. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Low, Ralph.

Ge/ESE 143.
Organic Geochemistry.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 a or equivalent.
Main topics include the analysis, properties, sources, and cycling of natural organic materials in the environment, from their production in living organisms to burial and decomposition in sediments and preservation in the rock record. Specific topics include analytical methods for organic geochemistry, lipid structure and biochemistry, composition of organic matter, factors controlling organic preservation, organic climate and CO2 proxies, diagenesis and catagenesis, and biomarkers for ancient life. A laboratory component (three evening labs) teaches the extraction and analysis of modern and ancient organic biomarkers by GC/MS. Class includes a mandatory one-day (weekend) field trip to observe the Monterey Formation. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Sessions.

Ay 144.
Independent Writing in Astronomy.
3 units (0-0-3):
offered every term.
Prerequisites: Ay 142.
This course is intended to be taken by students conducting minor study in the Ay option, subsequent to a term of Ay 142 (Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics), or by students who have completed a SURF with an astronomy faculty member and are writing it up for publication. Students should sign up in the section of the faculty member who supervised the research project. Course requirements are (at minimum) bi-weekly meetings with the research adviser and preparation of a 5-20 page write-up of the work in the style of one of the major journals, such as ApJ/AJ or Science/Nature. This course is required as part of the Ay minor.
Instructor: Staff.

Ch 144 ab.
Advanced Organic Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc; Ch 21 abc recommended.
An advanced survey of selected topics in modern organic chemistry. Topics vary from year to year and may include structural and theoretical organic chemistry; materials chemistry; macromolecular chemistry; mechanochemistry; molecular recognition/supramolecular chemistry; reaction mechanisms; reactive intermediates; pericyclic reactions; and photochemistry. Not offered 2021â€“22.

CMS/CS/EE/IDS 144.
Networks: Structure & Economics.
12 units (3-4-5):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 3, Ma/CS 6 a, and CS 38, or instructor permission.
Social networks, the web, and the internet are essential parts of our lives, and we depend on them every day. This course studies how they work and the "big" ideas behind our networked lives. Questions explored include: What do networks actually look like (and why do they all look the same)?; How do search engines work?; Why do memes spread the way they do?; How does web advertising work? For all these questions and more, the course will provide a mixture of both mathematical analysis and hands-on labs. The course expects students to be comfortable with graph theory, probability, and basic programming.
Instructor: Wierman.

ESE 144.
Climate from Space.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Introduction to the climate system. Introduction to radiative transfer, retrieval methods and data assimilation. Earth's energy balance. Atmospherics physics and composition. Ocean dynamics and ice physics from space. The carbon cycle from space. Climate monitoring.
Instructors: Teixeira, Staff.

Bi 145 a.
Tissue and Organ Physiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, 9, Ch/Bi 110. Ch/Bi 110 may be taken concurrently.
Reviews of anatomy and histology, as well as in-depth discussion of cellular physiology. Building from cell function to tissues, the course explores human physiology in an organ-based fashion. First term topics include endocrine physiology, the autonomic nervous system, urinary physiology, and the cardiovascular system. Particular emphasis is placed on health issues and pharmaceutical therapy from both a research and a medical perspective.
Instructor: Tydell.

Bi 145 b.
Tissue and Organ Physiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 145a.
Building on the foundations of Bi 145a, Bi 145b will continue the exploration of human physiology incorporating anatomy and cellular physiology. Topics include muscle physiology, the skeletal system, digestive and hepatic physiology, nutrition, the respiratory system and reproductive physiology. Particular emphasis is placed on health issues and pharmaceutical therapy from both a research and a medical perspective.
Instructor: Tydell.

Ch 145.
Chemical Biology of Proteins.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc; Ch/Bi 110 recommended.
An advanced survey of current and classic topics in chemical biology. Content draws largely from current literature and varies from year-to-year. Topics may include the structure, function, and synthesis of peptides and proteins; enzyme catalysis and inhibition; cellular metabolism; chemical genetics; proteomics; posttranslational modifications; chemical tools to study cellular dynamics; and enzyme evolution. Not offered 2021-2022.

CS/EE 145.
Projects in Networking.
9 units (0-0-9):
third term.
Prerequisites: Either CMS/CS/EE/IDS 144 or CS/IDS 142 in the preceding term, or instructor permission.
Students are expected to execute a substantial project in networking, write up a report describing their work, and make a presentation.
Instructor: Wierman.

Ge 145.
Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry.
9 units (1-4-4):
first term.
This class provides a hands-on introduction to the construction and operating principles of instrumentation used for isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The class is structured as a 1-hour lecture plus 4-hour lab each week examining the major subsystems of an IRMS, including vacuum systems, ionization source, mass analyzer, and detector. Laboratories involve hands-on deconstruction and re-assembly of a retired IRMS instrument to examine its components. Course is limited to 6 students at the discretion of the instructor, with preference given to graduate students using this instrumentation in their research. Taught in odd-numbered years; Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Sessions.

Ma 145 abc.
Topics in Representation Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
This course will discuss the study of representations of a group (or related algebra) by linear transformations of a vector space. Topics will vary from year to year, and may include modular representation theory (representations of finite groups in finite characteristic), complex representations of specific families of groups (esp. the symmetric group) and unitary representations (and structure theory) of compact groups. Not offered in 2021-22.

Ch 146.
Bioorganic Chemistry of Nucleic Acids.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 ab.
The course will examine the bioorganic chemistry of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA structures, molecular recognition, and mechanistic analyses of covalent modification of nucleic acids. Topics include synthetic methods for the construction of DNA and RNA; separation techniques; recognition of duplex DNA by peptide analogs, proteins, and oligonucleotide-directed triple helical formation; RNA structure and RNA as catalysts (ribozymes). Not offered 2021-22.

CS/EE 146.
Control and Optimization of Networks.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 3 or instructor's permission.
This is a research-oriented course meant for undergraduates and beginning graduate students who want to learn about current research topics in networks such as the Internet, power networks, social networks, etc. The topics covered in the course will vary, but will be pulled from current research in the design, analysis, control, and optimization of networks. Usually offered in odd years.
Instructor: Low.

ME/CE/Ge/ESE 146.
Computational Methods for Flow in Porous Media.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ME 11abc, ME 12abc, ACM 95/100, ACM 106ab (may be taken concurrently).
This course covers physical, mathematical and simulation aspects of single and two-phase flow and transport through porous media. Conservation equations for multiphase, multicomponent flow. Modeling of fluid mechanical instabilities such as viscous fingering, gravity fingering and gravity-driven convection. Coupling fluid flow with chemical reactions. Coupling single phase flow with poromechanics. Numerical methods for elliptic equations: finite volume methods, two-point flux approximations, finite difference, spectral method. Numerical methods for hyperbolic equations: high-order explicit methods, implicit method. Applications in hydrology, geological CO2 sequestration and induced seismicity, among others will be demonstrated.
Instructor: Fu.

Ch/ChE 147.
Polymer Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc.
An introduction to the chemistry of polymers, including synthetic methods and mechanisms of macromolecule formation, characterization techniques, reactivity, and applications.
Instructor: Robb.

EE/CS 147.
Digital Ventures Design.
9 units (3-3-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: none.
This course aims to offer the scientific foundations of analysis, design, development, and launching of innovative digital products and study elements of their success and failure. The course provides students with an opportunity to experience combined team-based design, engineering, and entrepreneurship. The lectures present a disciplined step-by-step approach to develop new ventures based on technological innovation in this space, and with invited speakers, cover topics such as market analysis, user/product interaction and design, core competency and competitive position, customer acquisition, business model design, unit economics and viability, and product planning. Throughout the term students will work within an interdisciplinary team of their peers to conceive an innovative digital product concept and produce a business plan and a working prototype. The course project culminates in a public presentation and a final report. Every year the course and projects focus on a particular emerging technology theme. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge/Bi/BE/CNS/ESE 147.
Challenges and Opportunities in Quantitative Ecology.
3 units (3-0-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: none.
Ecosystems are defined by dynamical interactions between groups of organisms, the communities they constitute, and the physical and chemical conditions and processes occurring in the environment. These dynamics are complex and multiscale across both length and time. This course will explore quantitative approaches that observe, measure, model, and monitor ecosystems and the services that they provide society-and the emerging opportunities that could employ these approaches to improve and strengthen global sustainability when it comes to our own ecology. This course will feature lectures each week from different members of the Caltech faculty working on ecological problems from different angles in order to illustrate how fresh insights can emerge by drawing on diverse ways-of-knowing.
Instructor: Fischer (and a rotating cast of Caltech faculty).

Ma 147 abc.
Dynamical Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 108, Ma 109, or equivalent.
First term: real dynamics and ergodic theory. Second term: Hamiltonian dynamics. Third term: complex dynamics. Part b and c not offered in 2021-2022.
Instructor: Wu.

ChE/Ch 148.
Polymer Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
An introduction to the physics that govern the structure and dynamics of polymeric liquids, and to the physical basis of characterization methods used in polymer science. The course emphasizes the scaling aspects of the various physical properties. Topics include conformation of a single polymer, a chain under different solvent conditions; dilute and semi-dilute solutions; thermodynamics of polymer blends and block copolymers; polyelectrolytes; rubber elasticity; polymer gels; linear viscoelasticity of polymer solutions and melts. Not offered 2021-2022.

EE/CNS/CS 148.
Selected Topics in Computational Vision.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: undergraduate calculus, linear algebra, geometry, statistics, computer programming.
The class will focus on an advanced topic in computational vision: recognition, vision-based navigation, 3-D reconstruction. The class will include a tutorial introduction to the topic, an exploration of relevant recent literature, and a project involving the design, implementation, and testing of a vision system.
Instructor: Perona.

Ma 148 ab.
Topics in Mathematical Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course covers a range of topics in mathematical physics. The content will vary from year to year. Topics covered will include some of the following: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics; mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics: Schroedinger equation, spectral theory of unbounded operators, representation theoretic aspects; partial differential equations of mathematical physics (wave, heat, Maxwell, etc.); rigorous results in classical and/or quantum statistical mechanics; mathematical aspects of quantum field theory; general relativity for mathematicians. Geometric theory of quantum information and quantum entanglement based on information geometry and entropy. Part b not offered in 2021-22.
Instructor: Marcolli.

Ch 149.
Tutorial in Organic Chemistry.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc and instructor's permission.
Discussion of key principles in organic chemistry, with an emphasis on reaction mechanisms and problem-solving. This course is intended primarily for first-year graduate students with a strong foundation in organic chemistry. Meets during the first three weeks of the term. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors: Fu, Stoltz.

CS/Ec 149.
Algorithmic Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course will equip students to engage with active research at the intersection of social and information sciences, including: algorithmic game theory and mechanism design; auctions; matching markets; and learning in games.
Instructor: Sandomirskii.

EE/APh 149.
Frontiers of Nonlinear Photonics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course overviews recent advances in photonics with emphasis on devices and systems that utilize nonlinearities. A wide range of nonlinearities in the classical and quantum regimes is covered, including but not limited to second- and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities, Kerr, Raman, optomechanical, thermal, and multi-photon nonlinearities. A wide range of photonic platforms is also considered ranging from bulk to ultrafast and integrated photonics. The course includes an overview of the concepts as well as review and discussion of recent literature and advances in the field. Not Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Marandi.

Ge/ESE 149.
Marine Geochemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ESE 102.
Introduction to chemical oceanography and sediment geochemistry. We will address the question "Why is the ocean salty?" by examining the processes that determine the major, minor, and trace element distributions of seawater and ocean sediments. Topics include river and estuarine chemistry, air/sea exchange, nutrient uptake by the biota, radioactive tracers, redox processes in the water column and sediments, carbonate chemistry, and ventilation. Given in alternate years; Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Adkins.

H 149.
Age of Fracture: America Since 1974.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
In this course, we will examine America after Richard Nixon's resignation in 1974, a period that historians have referred to as an age of fracture and social disaggregation. Using fracture as a conceptual framework to investigate American politics and culture in the last quarter of the twentieth century, we'll consider how the recent past has informed present-day American society. Themes of study will include the culture wars, political polarization, globalization, and the growing wealth gap. In addition, we'll investigate the theoretical and methodological challenges of doing recent history.
Instructor: Wiggins.

Ae 150 abc.
Aerospace Engineering Seminar.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
Speakers from campus and outside research and manufacturing organizations discuss current problems and advances in aerospace engineering. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Austin.

AM/CE/ME 150 abc.
Graduate Engineering Seminar.
1 unit:
each term.
Students attend a graduate seminar each week of each term and submit a report about the attended seminars. At least four of the attended seminars each term should be from the Mechanical and Civil Engineering seminar series. Students not registered for the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees must receive the instructor's permission. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

APh 150.
Topics in Applied Physics.
Units and terms to be arranged:
.
Content will vary from year to year, but at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course.

BE 150.
Biological Circuit Design.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 1, Bi 8, or equivalent; Ma 2, Bi/CNS/NB 195, or equivalent; or instructor's permission.
Quantitative studies of cellular and developmental systems in biology, including the architecture of specific circuits controlling microbial behaviors and multicellular development in model organisms. Specific topics include chemotaxis, multistability and differentiation, biological oscillations, stochastic effects in circuit operation, as well as higher-level circuit properties, such as robustness. The course will also consider the organization of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks at the genomic scale. Topics are approached from experimental, theoretical, and computational perspectives.
Instructors: Bois, Elowitz.

CS/IDS 150 ab.
Probability and Algorithms.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, third terms.
Prerequisites: part a: CS 38 and Ma 5 abc; part b: part a or another introductory course in discrete probability.
Part a: The probabilistic method and randomized algorithms. Deviation bounds, k-wise independence, graph problems, identity testing, derandomization and parallelization, metric space embeddings, local lemma. Part b: Further topics such as weighted sampling, epsilon-biased sample spaces, advanced deviation inequalities, rapidly mixing Markov chains, analysis of boolean functions, expander graphs, and other gems in the design and analysis of probabilistic algorithms. Parts a & b are offered in alternate years.
Instructor: Schulman.

EE 150.
Topics in Electrical Engineering.
Units to be arranged:
terms to be arranged.
Content will vary from year to year, at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Topics will be chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present all or portions of this course from time to time.
Instructor: Staff.

En 150.
Chaos and Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
We tend to think of literary texts as models of a stable poetic order, but modern and postmodern writers conduct increasingly bold experiments to test the contrary. This class explores how writers from the nineteenth century onward draw upon ancient and contemporary concepts of chaos to test out increasingly sophisticated models of disorder though writing. Readings to include Lucretius, Serres, Calvino, Barth, Stoppard, and Kehlmann. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Holland.

Ge/ESE 150.
Planetary Atmospheres.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 1, Ma 2, Ph 2, or equivalents.
A broad survey of the formation, evolution, and present-day properties of planetary atmospheres, drawing examples from both the solar system and extrasolar planet literature. We will cover topics including energy balance, radiative transfer, chemistry, cloud formation, dynamics, and escape. The goal of this class is to provide an overview of key concepts relevant to planetary atmospheres that can serve as a foundation for future coursework or research in this area.
Instructor: Knutson.

L/Hum 150.
Japanese Literature in Translation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Read and examine the selected classical Japanese literature and its traditions from 7th to 11th century from the perspectives of women, anti-heroes, and religions. A comparative analysis is applied to many genres such as oral traditions, performing arts, films, picture scrolls, comics, and anime to understand how Japanese think, and how Shinto and Buddhism have formed their ways of life, ethics, and concepts of life and death. Read selected portions of "The Kojiki", "Manyoshu", "The Tale of Ise", "The tale of the Bamboo-Cutter" (The Tale of the Moon Princess), and "The Tale of Genji."
Instructor: Hirai.

MS 150 abc.
Topics in Materials Science.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Content will vary from year to year, but will be at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate students. Topics are chosen according to the interests of students and faculty. Visiting faculty may present portions of the course.
Instructor: Staff.

NB/Bi/CNS 150.
Introduction to Neuroscience.
10 units (4-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, 9, or instructor's permission.
General principles of the function and organization of nervous systems, providing both an overview of the subject and a foundation for advanced courses. Topics include the physical and chemical bases for action potentials, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction; anatomy; development; sensory and motor pathways; memory and learning at the molecular, cellular, and systems level; and the neuroscience of brain diseases. Letter grades only.
Instructors: Adolphs, Lester.

VC 150.
Art Museum Futures.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The late 1960s saw the beginning of a movement in which several generations of artists investigated and deconstructed the customs and institutions of art. Institutional critique, as it would come to be known, challenged the promises and putative neutrality of public art museums. Following several decades of criticism the question remains unanswered: can the public art museum become a democratic institution? This course explores the ongoing debates around race, ethnicity, objectivity, subjectivity and cultural authority in contemporary museology. We will begin with the Enlightenment origins of the European art museum and its deployment within the United States; we will consider the artistic interventions that exposed its biases and eurocentrism, as well as the emergence of culturally-specific arts institutions and contemporary efforts at decolonization. Relying on decolonial and ethnic studies scholars, we will develop a critical framework for understanding the historical pathways that led to the National Museum of African American History and Culture and the upcoming Latino Smithsonian Museum. We will conclude with a deep dive into a radical museum model: Noah Purifoy's "Outdoor Desert Art Museum of Assemblage Sculpture".
Instructor: Decemvirale.

AM/CE 151.
Dynamics and Vibration.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Equilibrium concepts, conservative and dissipative systems, Lagrange's equations, differential equations of motion for discrete single and multi degree-of-freedom systems, natural frequencies and mode shapes of these systems (Eigenvalue problem associated with the governing equations), phase plane analysis of vibrating systems, forms of damping and energy dissipated in damped systems, response to simple force pulses, harmonic and earthquake excitation, response spectrum concepts, vibration isolation, seismic instruments, dynamics of continuous systems, Hamilton's principle, axial vibration of rods and membranes, transverse vibration of strings, beams (Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beam theory), and plates, traveling and standing wave solutions to motion of continuous systems, Rayleigh quotient and the Rayleigh-Ritz method to approximate natural frequencies and mode shapes of discrete and continuous systems, frequency domain solutions to dynamical systems, stability criteria for dynamical systems, and introduction to nonlinear systems and random vibration theory.
Instructor: Asimaki.

ChE 151 ab.
Physical and Chemical Rate Processes.
12 units (3-0-9):
second, third terms.
The foundations of heat, mass, and momentum transfer for single and multiphase fluids will be developed. Governing differential equations; laminar flow of incompressible fluids at low and high Reynolds numbers; forced and free convective heat and mass transfer, diffusion, and dispersion. Emphasis will be placed on physical understanding, scaling, and formulation and solution of boundary-value problems. Applied mathematical techniques will be developed and used throughout the course.
Instructor: Brady.

CS 151.
Complexity Theory.
12 units (3-0-9):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 21 and CS 38, or instructor's permission.
This course describes a diverse array of complexity classes that are used to classify problems according to the computational resources (such as time, space, randomness, or parallelism) required for their solution. The course examines problems whose fundamental nature is exposed by this framework, the known relationships between complexity classes, and the numerous open problems in the area. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Umans.

EE 151.
Electromagnetic Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE 45.
Foundations of circuit theory-electric fields, magnetic fields, transmission lines, and Maxwell's equations, with engineering applications.
Instructor: Yang.

En 151.
Keeping Time.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The way in which humans perceive and record time has a discernable history, and literary texts offer us one of the best ways to study it, particularly in times of war and natural catastrophe. With a focus on 16th- through 18th-century European literature, we will examine various techniques of literary time-keeping as they relate to topics such as, fame and mortality, as well as the experience of time's slowness and acceleration. Readings will include selections from Baroque emblem books as well as texts by Montaigne, Milton, Pepys, Defoe, and Rousseau. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Holland.

Ge 151.
Planetary Surfaces.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
We will review the mechanisms responsible for the formation and modification of the surfaces of solar system bodies, studying both composition and physical processes. Topics include exogenous processes (impact cratering, space weathering) and endogenous processes (tectonic, volcanic, weathering, fluvial, aeolian, and periglacial) that shape the surfaces of planets. Lectures, occasional labs, and one required field trip.
Instructor: de Kleer.

L/Hum 151.
Japanese Literature in Translation from Medieval to Pre-modern Japan.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Read and examine the selected Medieval to pre-modern Japanese literature and its traditions from 11th to 18th century from the perspectives of women, anti-heroes, and religions. A comparative analysis is applied to many genres such as oral traditions, performing arts, films, picture scrolls, comics, and anime to understand how Japanese think, and how Shinto, Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism, as well as the social systems, have formed their ways of life, ethics, and concepts of life and death. Read "The Princess Who Loved Insects" from "The Tsutsumi-Chunagon Monogatari", selected chapters of "The Tale of The Heike", "The Konjyaku Monogatari", and "Otogizoshi". Also read "The Double Suicide at Sonezaki" and "The Double Suicide at Amijima." Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hirai.

Ma 151 abc.
Algebraic and Differential Topology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 109 abc or equivalent.
Part a: Homology Theory. Homology and calculation of homology groups, exact sequences, cohomology rings, PoincarÃ© duality. Part b: Homotopy Theory and K-theory. Fibrations, higher homotopy groups, and exact sequences of fibrations. Fiber bundles, Eilenberg-MacLane spaces, classifying spaces. K-theory, generalized cohomology theory, Bott periodicity. Part c: Characteristic classes. Stiefel-Whitney classes, Chern classes, Pontryagin classes, cobordism theory, Chern-Weil theory.
Instructors: Mazel-Gee, Ni.

ChE 152.
Heterogeneous Kinetics and Reaction Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ChE 101 or instructor's permission.
Survey of heterogeneous reactions on metal and oxide catalysts. Langmuir-Hinshelwood versus Eley-Rideal reaction mechanisms. Reaction, diffusion, and heat transfer in heterogeneous catalytic systems. Characterization of porous catalysts.
Instructor: Giapis.

CS 152.
Introduction to Cryptography.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1b, CS 21, CS 38 or equivalent recommended.
This course is an introduction to the foundations of cryptography. The first part of the course introduces fundamental constructions in private-key cryptography, including one-way functions, pseudo-random generators and authentication, and in public-key cryptography, including trapdoor one-way functions, collision-resistant hash functions and digital signatures. The second part of the course covers selected topics such as interactive protocols and zero knowledge, the learning with errors problem and homomorphic encryption, and quantum cryptography: quantum money, quantum key distribution. The course is mostly theoretical and requires mathematical maturity. There will be a small programming component.
Instructor: Vidick.

EE 152.
High Frequency Systems Laboratory.
12 units (2-3-7):
first term.
Prerequisites: EE 45 or equivalent. EE 153 recommended.
The student will develop a strong, working knowledge of high-frequency systems covering RF and microwave frequencies. The essential building blocks of these systems will be studied along with the fundamental system concepts employed in their use. The first part of the course will focus on the design and measurement of core system building blocks; such as filters, amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators. Lectures will introduce key concepts followed by weekly laboratory sessions where the student will design and characterize these various system components. During the second part of the course, the student will develop their own high-frequency system, focused on a topic within remote sensing, communications, radar, or one within their own field of research.
Instructor: Russell.

H 152.
Where Do We Go from Here? Black America in the Post-Civil Rights Era.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course will examine African American politics, culture, and society in the decades following the passage of landmark civil rights legislation in the 1960s. Topics of discussion will include deindustrialization and the rise of hip hop culture, black feminist and queer thought, debates over welfare and affirmative action, and mass incarceration. Analyzing a variety of political and cultural artifacts as well as cutting-edge secondary literature, we will investigate various moments in recent African American history to gain insight into changing notions of rights, citizenship, equality, and freedom in American society.
Instructor: Wiggins.

L/Hum 152.
Classical French Literature in Translation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course introduces students to French theater and fiction of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, from MoliÃ¨re's comedies (The Misanthrope, Tartuffe), and Racine's tragedy Phaedra to the novels of Madame de Lafayette, Marivaux, and Laclos. Topics include the aesthetics of neoclassical theater, the rise of the novel, historical and social contexts (the reign of Louis XIV, libertinage, Rousseauism), and writers' creative development. Covers the period 1643-1789. Conducted in English, but students may read the French originals.
Instructor: Merrill.

NB/Bi/CNS 152.
Neural Circuits and Physiology of Appetite and Body Homeostasis.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Graduate standing or NB/Bi/CNS 150, or equivalent.
An advanced course of lectures, readings, and student presentations focusing on neural basis of appetites such as hunger and thirst. This course will cover the mechanisms that control appetites both at peripheral and central level. These include genetics, neural manipulation, and viral tracing tools with particular emphasis on the logic of how the body and the brain cooperate to maintain homeostasis. Given in alternate years; Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Oka.

BE 153.
Case Studies in Systems Physiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, Bi 9, or equivalent.
This course will explore the process of creating and validating theoretical models in systems biology and physiology. It will examine several macroscopic physiological systems in detail, including examples from immunology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, and others. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how macroscopic behavior emerges from the interaction of individual components.
Instructor: Petrasek.

Ch 153 abc.
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second (Ch 153 a), third (Ch 153 c to be offered 2021-2022, alternating with Ch 153 b in subsequent years) terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 112 and Ch 21 abc or concurrent registration.
Ch 153 a: Topics in modern inorganic chemistry. Electronic structure, spectroscopy, and photochemistry with emphasis on examples from the research literature. Ch 153 b: Applications of physical methods to the characterization of inorganic and bioinorganic species, with an emphasis on the practical application of Moessbauer, EPR, and pulse EPR spectroscopies. Ch 153 c: Theoretical and spectroscopic approaches to understanding the electronic structure of transition metal ions. Topics in the 153bc alternate sequence may include saturation magnetization and zero-field splitting in magnetic circular dichroism and molecular magnetism, hyperfine interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Moessbauer and magnetic Moessbauer spectroscopy, vibronic interactions in electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and bonding analyses using x-ray absorption and/or emission spectroscopies.
Instructors: Gray, Winkler (a), Hadt (c).

CS/IDS 153.
Current Topics in Theoretical Computer Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 21 and CS 38, or instructor's permission.
May be repeated for credit, with permission of the instructor. Students in this course will study an area of current interest in theoretical computer science. The lectures will cover relevant background material at an advanced level and present results from selected recent papers within that year's chosen theme. Students will be expected to read and present a research paper.

EE 153.
Microwave Circuits and Antennas.
12 units (3-2-7):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE 45.
High-speed circuits for wireless communications, radar, and broadcasting. Design, fabrication, and measurements of microstrip filters, directional couplers, low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, detectors, and mixers. Design, fabrication, and measurements of wire antennas and arrays.
Instructor: Antsos.

H/HPS 153.
Inequality and Environment.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This seminar introduces students to the history of environmental inequality, environmental racism, and environmental justice. Human bodies are inescapably enmeshed in our environments: human health and environmental health are inseparable. But environmental burdens and benefits are distributed unevenly along lines of race, gender, class, and nationality. We will examine local, national, and transnational case studies to understand the historical development of environmental inequalities and movements for environmental justice. We will consider different methods for studying environmental injustice and the politics of environmental knowledge.
Instructor: LeBlanc.

L/VC 153.
Refugees and Migrants' Visual and Textual Representations.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course focuses on the refugees and migrants' images in documentaries, narrative films, graphic novels, fictional texts, poetic works, and autobiographical narratives. It investigates how these representations participate in the development and strengthening of political discourse. Works by authors such as Hannah Arendt, Antje Ellermann, Achille Mbembe, Martin A. Schain, and Sasha Polakow-Suransky will provide some context to our analysis. Topics discussed in class include the historical and economic relationships of Europe with the refugees and migrants' countries of origin, the rise of anti-immigrant politics and its significance for the future of the European Union, but also its impact on social peace, in France in particular. This course is taught in English. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orcel.

ACM/IDS 154.
Inverse Problems and Data Assimilation.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Basic differential equations, linear algebra, probability and statistics: ACM/IDS 104, ACM/EE 106 ab, ACM/EE/IDS 116, IDS/ACM/CS 157 or equivalent.
Models in applied mathematics often have input parameters that are uncertain; observed data can be used to learn about these parameters and thereby to improve predictive capability. The purpose of the course is to describe the mathematical and algorithmic principles of this area. The topic lies at the intersection of fields including inverse problems, differential equations, machine learning and uncertainty quantification. Applications will be drawn from the physical, biological and data sciences.
Instructor: Stuart.

Ch 154 ab.
Organometallic Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 112 or equivalent.
A general discussion of the reaction mechanisms and the synthetic and catalytic uses of transition metal organometallic compounds. Second term: a survey of the elementary reactions and methods for investigating reaction mechanisms. Third term: contemporary topics in inorganic and organometallic synthesis, structure and bonding, and applications in catalysis. b is not offered in 2021-22.
Instructor: Peters (a).

EE 154 ab.
Practical Electronics for Space Applications.
9 units (2-3-4):
second and third terms.
Part a: Subsystem Design: Students will be exposed to design for subsystem electronics in the space environment, including an understanding of the space environment, common approaches for low cost spacecraft, atmospheric / analogue testing, and discussions of risk. Emphasis on a practical exposure to early subsystem design for a TRL 3-4 effort. Part b: Subsystems to System Interfacing: Builds upon the first term by extending subsystems to be compatible with "spacecraft", including a near-space "flight" of prototype subsystems on a high-altitude balloon flight. Focus on qualification for the flight environment appropriate to a TRL 4-5 effort. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Klesh.

Ge/ESE 154.
Readings in Paleoclimate.
3 units (1-0-2):
second term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Lectures and readings in areas of current interest in paleoceanography and paleoclimate.
Instructor: Adkins.

H/HPS 154.
Feminist Science Studies.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This seminar offers an introduction to scholarship on gender and science. Feminist science studies can seem oxymoronic: the objectivity on which science depends appears opposed to the political commitments feminism implies. Scholars in feminist science studies, however, argue that feminist theory and methods can in fact improve scientific practice. This course will introduce students to the historical development of feminist Science & Technology Studies and what this field tells us about the history of women in science, the history of scientific theories of sex/gender, and the future of feminist research. This reading-heavy class will also include discussions of feminist epistemology, feminist research methods, and new directions in feminist STS.
Instructor: LeBlanc.

L/Hum 154.
The Modern French Novel in Translation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course introduces students to the French novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, from the realist masterpieces of Stendhal (The Red and the Black), Balzac (Old Goriot), and Flaubert (Madame Bovary/Sentimental Education) to Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Topics include the literary representation of reality, historical and social contexts (the Bourbon Restoration, 1848 Revolution, the Third Republic), and the decline of the French nobility. Covers 1814-1918. Conducted in English, but students may read the French originals. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Merrill.

NB/Bi/CNS 154.
Principles of Neuroscience.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or equivalent.
This course aims to distill the fundamental tenets of brain science, unlike the voluminous textbook with a similar title. What are the essential facts and ways of understanding in this discipline? How does neuroscience connect to other parts of life science, physics, and mathematics? Lectures and guided reading will touch on a broad range of phenomena from evolution, development, biophysics, computation, behavior, and psychology. Students will benefit from prior exposure to at least some of these domains. Given in alternate years; Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Meister.

ChE/Ch 155.
Chemistry of Catalysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Discussion of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reactions, with emphasis on the relationships between the two areas and their role in energy problems. Topics include catalysis by metals, metal oxides, zeolites, and soluble metal complexes; utilization of hydrocarbon resources; and catalytic applications in alternative energy approaches. Not offered 2021-2022.

CMS/CS/CNS/EE/IDS 155.
Machine Learning & Data Mining.
12 units (3-3-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CS/CNS/EE 156 a. Having a sufficient background in algorithms, linear algebra, calculus, probability, and statistics, is highly recommended.
This course will cover popular methods in machine learning and data mining, with an emphasis on developing a working understanding of how to apply these methods in practice. The course will focus on basic foundational concepts underpinning and motivating modern machine learning and data mining approaches. We will also discuss recent research developments.
Instructor: Yue.

Ge/ESE 155.
Paleoceanography.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ESE 102.
Evaluation of the data and models that make up our current understanding of past climates. Emphasis will be placed on a historical introduction to the study of the past ten thousand to a few hundred thousand years, with some consideration of longer timescales. Evidence from marine and terrestrial sediments, ice cores, corals, and speleothems will be used to address the mechanisms behind natural climate variability. Models of this variability will be evaluated in light of the data. Topics will include sea level and ice volume, surface temperature evolution, atmospheric composition, deep ocean circulation, tropical climate, ENSO variability, and terrestrial/ocean linkages. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Adkins.

H/HPS 155.
Mortality Crises and Social Change: Epidemic Disease from 1300 to the Present.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
What do we know about epidemics in the past? What did contemporaries understand about these events? How did societies respond to periodic bouts of epidemic disease? This course examines mortality crises and epidemics from the Black Death in the 14th century to the current coronavirus pandemic, with attention given to the impact of epidemics on societies, the ways in which such outbreaks have been understood over time and the kinds of responses they have elicited. We will draw on studies for a range of societies in order to identify patterns across space and time, and to highlight both continuity and change in the ways societies have dealt with contagious diseases.
Instructor: Dennison.

NB/Bi/BE 155.
Neuropharmacology.
6 units (3-0-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150.
The neuroscience of drugs for therapy, for prevention, and for recreation. Students learn the prospects for new generations of medications in neurology, psychiatry, aging, and treatment of substance abuse. Topics: Types of drug molecules, Drug receptors, Electrophysiology, Drugs activate ion channels, Drugs block ion channels, Drugs activate and block G protein pathways, Drugs block neurotransmitter transporters, Pharmacokinetics, Recreational drugs, Nicotine Addiction, Opiate Addiction, Drugs for neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Drugs for epilepsy and migraine, and Psychiatric diseases: Nosology and drugs. The course is taught at the research level. Given in alternate years; Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Lester.

APh 156 abc.
Plasma Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 106 abc or equivalent.
An introduction to the principles of plasma physics. A multitiered theoretical infrastructure will be developed consisting of the Hamilton-Lagrangian theory of charged particle motion in combined electric and magnetic fields, the Vlasov kinetic theory of plasma as a gas of interacting charged particles, the two-fluid model of plasma as interacting electron and ion fluids, and the magnetohydrodynamic model of plasma as an electrically conducting fluid subject to combined magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. This infrastructure will be used to examine waves, transport processes, equilibrium, stability, and topological self-organization. Examples relevant to plasmas in both laboratory (fusion, industrial) and space (magneto-sphere, solar) will be discussed.
Instructor: Bellan.

CS/CNS/EE 156 ab.
Learning Systems.
9 units (3-1-5):
first, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 2 and CS 2, or equivalent.
Introduction to the theory, algorithms, and applications of automated learning. How much information is needed to learn a task, how much computation is involved, and how it can be accomplished. Special emphasis will be given to unifying the different approaches to the subject coming from statistics, function approximation, optimization, pattern recognition, and neural networks.
Instructor: Abu-Mostafa.

ESE 156.
Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Biosphere.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ESE 101 or instructor's permission.
An introduction into methods to quantify trace gases as well as vegetation properties remotely (from space, air-borne or ground-based). This course will provide the basic concepts of remote sensing, using hands-on examples to be solved in class and as problem-sets. Topics covered include Absorption spectroscopy, measurement and modeling techniques, optimal estimation theory and error characterization, applications in global studies of biogeochemical cycles and air pollution/quality. This course is complementary to EE/Ae 157ab and Ge/EE/ESE 157c with stronger emphasis on applications for the atmosphere and biosphere. Students will work with real and synthetic remote sensing data (basic knowledge of a scripting language is advantageous, most of the examples will be in Julia). Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Frankenberg.

Ge 156.
Topics in Planetary Surfaces.
6 units (3-0-3):
.
Offered by announcement only. Reading about and discussion of current understanding of the surface of a selected terrestrial planet, major satellite, or asteroid. Important "classic" papers will be reviewed, relative to the data that are being returned from recent and current missions. May be repeated for credit.

H/HPS 156.
COVID-19 and Other Pandemics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
How do we understand the COVID pandemic and the differential responses to it around the globe? What is the best framework for proper understanding? Science, history, politics, culture? Special attention will be given to the state of medical science today and in the past, the understanding of ethology, transmission, and symptoms; the role of scientists, physicians, and "quacks"; the persistence and change in the forms of fear, superstition, and misinformation across time. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Kormos-Buchwald.

EE/Ae 157 ab.
Introduction to the Physics of Remote Sensing.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 2 or equivalent.
An overview of the physics behind space remote sensing instruments. Topics include the interaction of electromagnetic waves with natural surfaces, including scattering of microwaves, microwave and thermal emission from atmospheres and surfaces, and spectral reflection from natural surfaces and atmospheres in the near-infrared and visible regions of the spectrum. The class also discusses the design of modern space sensors and associated technology, including sensor design, new observation techniques, ongoing developments, and data interpretation. Examples of applications and instrumentation in geology, planetology, oceanography, astronomy, and atmospheric research.
Instructor: Rosen.

Ge/EE/ESE 157 c.
Remote Sensing for Environmental and Geological Applications.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Analysis of electromagnetic radiation at visible, infrared, and radio wavelengths for interpretation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the surfaces of Earth and other planets. Topics: interaction of light with materials, spectroscopy of minerals and vegetation, atmospheric removal, image analysis, classification, and multi-temporal studies. This course does not require but is complementary to EE 157ab with emphasis on applications for geological and environmental problems, using data acquired from airborne and orbiting remote sensing platforms. Students will work with digital remote sensing datasets in the laboratory and there will be one field trip.
Instructor: Ehlmann.

HPS/H 157.
What is History of Technology?.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Visible and invisible technologies dominate the present, deeply impacting our personal, social and political lives. This advanced class focuses on technology's role at the intersection of science, politics and culture, primarily in Western Europe and the United States. We will examine the histories of selected technologies (rocketry, computing, robotics); the circulation of knowledge and the creation of networks (transportation, communication, energy, surveillance); real and imagined infrastructural mega-projects (Suez Canal, Atlantropa, Channel tunnel, Transrapid, Iridium); and the role of experts and technocratic elites. As the class combines the discussion of competing methodologies with the reading of field-defining classics, students will get to know a thriving area of historical research with particular relevance to future scientists and engineers.
Instructor: Geppert.

IDS/ACM/CS 157.
Statistical Inference.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM/EE/IDS 116, Ma 3.
Statistical Inference is a branch of mathematical engineering that studies ways of extracting reliable information from limited data for learning, prediction, and decision making in the presence of uncertainty. This is an introductory course on statistical inference. The main goals are: develop statistical thinking and intuitive feel for the subject; introduce the most fundamental ideas, concepts, and methods of statistical inference; and explain how and why they work, and when they don't. Topics covered include summarizing data, fundamentals of survey sampling, statistical functionals, jackknife, bootstrap, methods of moments and maximum likelihood, hypothesis testing, p-values, the Wald, Student's t-, permutation, and likelihood ratio tests, multiple testing, scatterplots, simple linear regression, ordinary least squares, interval estimation, prediction, graphical residual analysis.
Instructor: Zuev.

Ma 157 abc.
Riemannian Geometry.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 151 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Part a: basic Riemannian geometry: geometry of Riemannian manifolds, connections, curvature, Bianchi identities, completeness, geodesics, exponential map, Gauss's lemma, Jacobi fields, Lie groups, principal bundles, and characteristic classes. Part b: basic topics may vary from year to year and may include elements of Morse theory and the calculus of variations, locally symmetric spaces, special geometry, comparison theorems, relation between curvature and topology, metric functionals and flows, geometry in low dimensions. Part c not offered in 2021-22.
Instructor: Smillie.

NB/Bi/CNS 157.
Comparative Nervous Systems.
9 units (2-3-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
An introduction to the comparative study of the gross and microscopic structure of nervous systems. Emphasis on the vertebrate nervous system; also, the highly developed central nervous systems found in arthropods and cephalopods. Variation in nervous system structure with function and with behavioral and ecological specializations and the evolution of the vertebrate brain. Letter grades only. Given in alternate years; Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Allman.

Bi/CNS 158.
Vertebrate Evolution.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 1, Bi 8, or instructor's permission.
An integrative approach to the study of vertebrate evolution combining comparative anatomical, behavioral, embryological, genetic, paleontological, and physiological findings. Special emphasis will be given to: (1) the modification of developmental programs in evolution; (2) homeostatic systems for temperature regulation; (3) changes in the life cycle governing longevity and death; (4) the evolution of brain and behavior. Letter grades only. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Allman.

EE/APh 158.
Quantum Electrical Circuits.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: advanced-level familiarity with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics (EE 151 and Ph 125 abc, or equivalent).
Course focuses on superconducting electrical systems for quantum computing. Contents begin with reviewing required concepts in microwave engineering, quantum optics, and superconductivity, and proceeds with deriving quantum mechanical description of superconducting linear circuits, Josephson qubits, and parametric amplifiers. The second part of the course provides an overview of integrated nano-mechanical, piezo-electric, and electro-optic systems and their applications in transducing quantum electrical signals in conjunction with superconducting qubits.
Instructor: Mirhosseini.

ESE/ChE 158.
Aerosol Physics and Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Fundamentals of aerosol physics and chemistry; aerodynamics and diffusion of aerosol particles; condensation and evaporation; thermodynamics of particulate systems; nucleation; coagulation; particle size distributions; optics of small particles. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Seinfeld, Flagan.

HPS/H 158.
From World to Earth: Spaceflight and the Making of a Planet.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Are we living in a 'Second Space Age'? Framed by wide-ranging debates on scale, temporality, planetization and the Anthropocene, this advanced course charts the making of planet Earth from the 1940s through the present. Individual sessions will be devoted to pertinent philosophical conceptions (biosphere, noÃ¶sphere, Gaia); the visualized and photographed view of Earth from above (Small Steps, Whole Earth, Earthrise, Blue Marble, Blue Dot); the genealogy of space stations and space colonies (space mirrors, Salyut, Skylab, O'Neill, Spacelab, ISS); reconnaissance, navigation and surveillance systems (Corona, GPS, BeiDou, Galileo); space-based communication infrastructures (Intelsat, Telstar, Iridium); as well as the role of technocelebrities and astropreneurs. A field trip forms part of this class.
Instructor: Geppert.

IDS/ACM/CS 158.
Fundamentals of Statistical Learning.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3 or ACM/EE/IDS 116, IDS/ACM/CS 157.
The main goal of the course is to provide an introduction to the central concepts and core methods of statistical learning, an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of statistics, machine learning, information and data sciences. The course focuses on the mathematics and statistics of methods developed for learning from data. Students will learn what methods for statistical learning exist, how and why they work (not just what tasks they solve and in what built-in functions they are implemented), and when they are expected to perform poorly. The course is oriented for upper level undergraduate students in IDS, ACM, and CS and graduate students from other disciplines who have sufficient background in probability and statistics. The course can be viewed as a statistical analog of CMS/CS/CNS/EE/IDS 155. Topics covered include supervised and unsupervised learning, regression and classification problems, linear regression, subset selection, shrinkage methods, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, resampling techniques, tree-based methods, support-vector machines, and clustering methods. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 159.
Optical Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2, EE/Ae 157, or equivalent; APh 23 desirable.
This class covers both the fundamentals of optical engineering and the development of space optical systems. Emphasis is on the design and engineering of optical, UV and IR systems for scientific remote sensing and imaging applications. Material covered is: first order optics to find the location, size and orientation of an image; geometrical aberration theory balancing tolerancing optical systems; transmittance, Etendu vignetting; radiative transfer; scalar vector wave propagation-physical optics; scalar diffraction image formation coherence; interferometry for the measurement of optical surfaces astronomy; optical metrology wavefront sensing control (A/O); segmented and sparse aperture telescopes; and design topics in coronagraphy, Fourier transform spectrometers, grating spectrometers, and large aperture telescopes. Space optics issues discussed will be segmented sparse aperture telescopes, radiation damage to glass, thermal and UV contamination. Not offered 2021-2022.

BE 159.
Signal Transduction and Mechanics in Morphogenesis.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, Bi 9, ACM 95/100 ab, or instructor's permission.
This course examines the mechanical and biochemical pathways that govern morphogenesis. Topics include embryonic patterning, cell polarization, cell-cell communication, and cell migration in tissue development and regeneration. The course emphasizes the interplay between mechanical and biochemical pathways in morphogenesis. Not offered 2021-2022
Instructor: Bois.

CS/CNS/EE/IDS 159.
Advanced Topics in Machine Learning.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 155; strong background in statistics, probability theory, algorithms, and linear algebra; background in optimization is a plus as well.
This course focuses on current topics in machine learning research. This is a paper reading course, and students are expected to understand material directly from research articles. Students are also expected to present in class, and to do a final project.

Ge/Ay 159.
Astrobiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
We approach the age-old questions "Why are we here?" and "Are we alone?" by covering topics in cosmology, the origins of life, planetary habitability, the detection of biosignatures, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and humanity's future in space. Specific topics include: the emergence of life at hydrothermal vents; the habitable zone and the Gaia hypothesis; the search for ancient habitable environments on Mars; icy satellites like Europa, Enceladus, and Titan as astrobiological prospects; and the hunt for atmospheric biosignatures on exoplanets. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Yung.

VC 159.
Los Angeles As Artwork.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This survey introduces students to the history of Los Angeles' creative practices. Covering a broad range of environments and visual cultures, we will begin in the period before European colonization and conclude in contemporary Los Angeles. Reading the city as artwork will introduce students to an expanded field of creativity and analysis beyond the art object. To do so, we will consider enacted environments, expressive objects, urban landscapes, maps, monuments, murals and photographs. The class will give special attention to how colonialism continues to haunt and form the city, as well as explore the role creative practices have played in resisting the European colonization of space, time and being. We will cover topics including civil rights, hybridization, modernity, public space, and the outstanding role race has played in shaping the city. Students will learn to analyze evidence within its historical and cultural context, as well as write about how space and personal experience inform both artistic production and analysis.
Instructor: Decemvirale.

Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab.
Continuum Mechanics of Fluids and Solids.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Elements of Cartesian tensors. Configurations and motions of a body. Kinematics-study of deformations, rotations and stretches, polar decomposition. Lagrangian and Eulerian strain velocity and spin tensor fields. Irrotational motions, rigid motions. Kinetics-balance laws. Linear and angular momentum, force, traction stress. Cauchy's theorem, properties of Cauchy's stress. Equations of motion, equilibrium equations. Power theorem, nominal (Piola-Kirchoff) stress. Thermodynamics of bodies. Internal energy, heat flux, heat supply. Laws of thermodynamics, notions of entropy, absolute temperature. Entropy inequality (Clausius-Duhem). Examples of special classes of constitutive laws for materials without memory. Objective rates, corotational, convected rates. Principles of materials frame indifference. Examples: the isotropic Navier-Stokes fluid, the isotropic thermoelastic solid. Basics of finite differences, finite elements, and boundary integral methods, and their applications to continuum mechanics problems illustrating a variety of classes of constitutive laws.
Instructors: Rosakis, Lapusta.

Bi 160.
Molecular Basis of Animal Evolution.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8 and/or Bi 9 recommended.
We share the planet with well over 1.5 million other animal species. This course covers how the staggering diversity of the animal kingdom came about through underlying molecular evolutionary phenomena, including gene and protein sequence evolution, gene family and genome evolution, the evolution of developmental processes, neural circuit evolution and behavior, and molecular mechanisms that physiologically adapt animals to their environment. Molecular processes involved in speciation will be explained, together with an analysis of constraints and catalysts on the production of selectable variation that have shaped the evolution of animal life. Participants will undertake a laboratory project on evolutionary genomics, involving fieldwork, genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis. The course focuses on the >99.9% of animals that lack backbones.
Instructor: Parker.

CE 160 ab.
Structural and Earthquake Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Matrix structural analysis of the static and dynamic response of structural systems, Newmark time integration, Newton-Raphson iteration methodology for the response of nonlinear systems, stability of iteration schemes, static and dynamic numerical analysis of planar beam structures (topics include the development of stiffness, mass, and damping matrices, material and geometric nonlinearity effects, formulation of a nonlinear 2-D beam element, uniform and nonuniform earthquake loading, soil-structure interaction, 3-D beam element formulation, shear deformations, and panel zone deformations in steel frames, and large deformation analysis), seismic design and analysis of steel moment frame and braced frame systems, steel member behavior (topics include bending, buckling, torsion, warping, and lateral torsional buckling, and the effects of residual stresses), reinforced concrete member behavior (topics include bending, shear, torsion, and PMM interaction), and seismic design requirements for reinforced concrete structures. Not offered 2021-22.

Ec/PS 160 abc.
Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences.
9 units (3-3-3):
first, second, third terms.
Section a required for sections b and c. An examination of recent work in laboratory testing in the social sciences with particular reference to work done in social psychology, economics, and political science. Students are required to design and conduct experiments.
Instructor: Plott.

EE/CS/IDS 160.
Fundamentals of Information Transmission and Storage.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Basics of information theory: entropy, mutual information, source and channel coding theorems. Basics of coding theory: error-correcting codes for information transmission and storage, block codes, algebraic codes, sparse graph codes. Basics of digital communications: sampling, quantization, digital modulation, matched filters, equalization.
Instructor: Hassibi.

En/VC 160 ab.
Classical Hollywood Cinema.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course introduces students to Hollywood films and filmmaking during the classical period, from the coming of sound through the '50s. Students will develop the techniques and vocabulary appropriate to the distinct formal properties of film. Topics include the rise and collapse of the studio system, technical transformations (sound, color, deep focus), genre (the musical, the melodrama), cultural contexts (the Depression, World War II, the Cold War), audience responses, and the economic history of the film corporations. Terms may be taken independently. Part a covers the period 1927-1940. Part b covers 1941-1960. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Jurca.

HPS/H 160.
Einstein and His Generation: The History of Modern Physical Sciences.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
An exploration of the most significant scientific developments in the physical sciences, structured around the life and work of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), with particular emphasis on the new theories of radiation, the structure of matter, relativity, and quantum mechanics. While using original Einstein manuscripts, notebooks, scientific papers, and personal correspondence, we shall also study how experimental and theoretical work in the sciences was carried out; scientific education and career patterns; personal, political, cultural, and sociological dimensions of science.
Instructor: Kormos-Buchwald.

Ma 160 abc.
Number Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
In this course, the basic structures and results of algebraic number theory will be systematically introduced. Topics covered will include the theory of ideals/divisors in Dedekind domains, Dirichlet unit theorem and the class group, p-adic fields, ramification, Abelian extensions of local and global fields.
Instructors: Dunn, Burungale Radziwill.

BE/APh 161.
Physical Biology of the Cell.
12 units (3-0-9):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2 ab and ACM 95/100 ab, or background in differential equations and statistical and quantum mechanics, or instructor's written permission.
Physical models applied to the analysis of biological structures ranging from individual proteins and DNA to entire cells. Topics include the force response of proteins and DNA, models of molecular motors, DNA packing in viruses and eukaryotes, mechanics of membranes, and membrane proteins and cell motility.
Instructor: Phillips.

EE/CS 161.
Big Data Networks.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Linear Algebra ACM/IDS 104 and Introduction to Probability Models ACM/EE/IDS 116 or their equivalents.
Next generation networks will have tens of billions of nodes forming cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. A number of fundamental scientific and technological challenges must be overcome to deliver on this vision. This course will focus on (1) How to boost efficiency and reliability in large networks; the role of network coding, distributed storage, and distributed caching; (2) How to manage wireless access on a massive scale; modern random access and topology formation techniques; and (3) New vistas in big data networks, including distributed computing over networks and crowdsourcing. A selected subset of these problems, their mathematical underpinnings, state-of-the-art solutions, and challenges ahead will be covered. Given in alternate years. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hassibi.

En/VC 161.
The New Hollywood.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course examines the post-classical era of Hollywood filmmaking with a focus on the late 1960s through the 1970s, a period of significant formal and thematic experimentation. We will study American culture and politics as well as film in this era, as we consider the relation between broader social transformations and the development of new narrative conventions and cinematic techniques. We will pay particular attention to the changing film industry and its influence on this body of work. Films covered may include Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate, The Godfather, Taxi Driver, and Jaws.
Instructor: Jurca.

Ge 161.
Plate Tectonics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ab or equivalent.
Geophysical and geological observations related to plate tectonic theory. Instantaneous and finite motion of rigid plates on a sphere; marine magnetic and paleomagnetic measurements; seismicity and tectonics of plate boundaries; reference frames and absolute plate motions. Interpretations of geologic data in the context of plate tectonics; plate tectonic evolution of the ocean basins.
Instructor: Stock.

H 161.
Selected Topics in History.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
This is an advanced humanities course on a specialized topic in History. It is usually taught by new or visiting faculty. The course may be re-taken for credit except as noted in the course announcement. Limited to 15 students. See registrar's announcement for details.
Instructors: Staff, visitors.

MS/ME 161.
Imperfections in Crystals.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or MS 115.
The relation of lattice defects to the physical and mechanical properties of crystalline solids. Introduction to point imperfections and their relationships to transport properties in metallic, covalent, and ionic crystals. Kroeger-Vink notation. Introduction to dislocations: geometric, crystallographic, elastic, and energetic properties of dislocations. Dislocation reactions and interactions including formation of locks, stacking faults, and surface effects. Relations between collective dislocation behavior and mechanical properties of crystals. Introduction to computer simulations of dislocations. Grain boundaries. The structure and properties of interfaces in solids. Emphasis on materials science aspects of role of defects in electrical, morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of solids. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Greer.

Pl/CNS/NB/Bi/Psy 161.
Consciousness.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: None, but strongly suggest prior background in philosophy of mind and basic neurobiology (such as Bi150).
One of the last great challenges to our understanding of the world concerns conscious experience. What exactly is it? How is it caused or constituted? And how does it connect with the rest of our science? This course will cover philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience in a mixture of lectures and in-class discussion. There are no formal pre-requisites, but background in philosophy (equivalent to PI41, PI110) and in neuroscience (equivalent to BI/CNS 150) is strongly recommended and students with such background will be preferentially considered. Limited to 20. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Adolphs, Eberhardt.

CS/IDS 162.
Data, Algorithms and Society.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 38 and CS 155 or 156a.
This course examines algorithms and data practices in fields such as machine learning, privacy, and communication networks through a social lens. We will draw upon theory and practices from art, media, computer science and technology studies to critically analyze algorithms and their implementations within society. The course includes projects, lectures, readings, and discussions. Students will learn mathematical formalisms, critical thinking and creative problem solving to connect algorithms to their practical implementations within social, cultural, economic, legal and political contexts. Enrollment by application.
Instructor: Ralph.

Ge 162.
Seismology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab or equivalent.
Review of concepts in classical seismology. Topics to be covered: basic theories of wave propagation in the earth, instrumentation, Earth's structure and tomography, theory of the seismic source, physics of earthquakes, and seismic risk. Emphasis will be placed on how quantitative mathematical and physical methods are used to understand complex natural processes, such as earthquakes.
Instructor: Zhan.

HPS/H 162.
Social Studies of Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A comparative, multidisciplinary course that examines the practice of science in a variety of locales, using methods from the history, sociology, and anthropology of scientific knowledge. Topics covered include the high-energy particle laboratory as compared with a biological one; Western as compared to non-Western scientific reasoning; the use of visualization techniques in science from their inception to virtual reality; gender in science; and other topics.
Instructor: Feingold.

L/Hum 162.
Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
This class is an introduction to the literary masterworks of the Hispanic tradition from the 16th to the 20th centuries. Readings and discussions are in English, but students may read Spanish originals. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ma 162 ab.
Topics in Number Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 160.
The course will discuss in detail some advanced topics in number theory, selected from the following: Galois representations, elliptic curves, modular forms, L-functions, special values, automorphic representations, p-adic theories, theta functions, regulators. Not offered 2021-22.

MS/APh 162.
Electronic Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: APh 114a (or equivalent solid-state physics) recommended but not required.
An overview of the relationships between chemical, structural, and symmetry properties of prominent material systems with optoelectronic functionalities. Content will be presented through discussions on synthesis and fabrication approaches, core functionalities, and current research frontiers, with a focus on group IV, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors, oxides, two-dimensional materials, dielectrics and mesoscopic systems.
Instructor: Falson.

NB/Bi/CNS 162.
Cellular and Systems Neuroscience Laboratory.
12 units (2-4-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or instructor's permission.
A laboratory-based introduction to experimental methods used for electrophysiological studies of the central nervous system. Through the term, students investigate the physiological response properties of neurons in vertebrate and invertebrate brains, using extra- and intracellular recording techniques. Students are instructed in all aspects of experimental procedures, including proper surgical techniques, electrode fabrication, and data analysis. The class also includes a brain dissection and independent student projects that utilize modern digital neuroscience resources. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Bremner.

ChE/BE 163.
Introduction to Biomolecular Engineering.
12 units (3-0-9):
first term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, Ch/Bi 110 or instructor's permission and CS 1 or equivalent.
The course introduces rational design and evolutionary methods for engineering functional protein and nucleic acid systems. Rational design topics include molecular modeling, positive and negative design paradigms, simulation and optimization of equilibrium and kinetic properties, design of catalysts, sensors, motors, and circuits. Evolutionary design topics include evolutionary mechanisms and tradeoffs, fitness landscapes and directed evolution of proteins. Some assignments require programming (Python is the language of instruction).
Instructors: Bois, Pierce.

CS 163.
Making Data Visual.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
For course description, see VC 53.

EE 163.
Communication Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: EE 111; ACM/EE/IDS 116 or equivalent.
Mathematical models of communication processes; signals and noise as random processes; sampling; modulation; spectral occupancy; intersymbol interference; synchronization; optimum demodulation and detection; signal-to-noise ratio and error probability in digital baseband and carrier communication systems; linear and adaptive equalization; maximum likelihood sequence estimation; multipath channels; parameter estimation; hypothesis testing; optical communication systems. Capacity measures; multiple antenna and multiple carrier communication systems; wireless networks; different generations of wireless systems. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 163.
Geodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab.
Quantitative introduction to the dynamics of the earth, including core, mantle, lithosphere, and crust. Mechanical models are developed for each of these regions and compared to a variety of data sets. Potential theory applied to the gravitational and geomagnetic fields. Special attention is given to the dynamics of plate tectonics and the earthquake cycle.
Instructor: Gurnis.

ME/CE 163.
Mechanics and Rheology of Fluid-Infiltrated Porous Media.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Continuum Mechanics-Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab.
This course will focus on the physics of porous materials (e.g., geomaterials, biological tissue) and their intimate interaction with interstitial fluids (e.g., water, oil, blood). The course will be split into two parts: Part 1 will focus on the continuum mechanics (balance laws) of multi-phase solids, with particular attention to fluid diffusion-solid deformation coupling. Part 2 will introduce the concept of effective stresses and state of the art rheology available in modeling the constitutive response of representative porous materials. Emphasis will be placed on poro-elasticity and poro-plasticity. Not offered 2021-22.

NB/Bi/CNS 163.
The Biological Basis of Neural Disorders.
6 units (3-0-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or instructor's permission.
The neuroscience of psychiatric, neurological, and neurodegenerative disorders and of substance abuse, in humans and in animal models. Students master the biological principles including genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, physiology, and circuits. Topics are taught at the research level and include classical and emerging therapeutic approaches and diagnostic strategies. Given in alternate years; Offered 2021-22.
Instructors: Lester, Lois.

VC/H/HPS 163.
Science on Screen.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Many of our ideas about who scientists are and what they do have been formed through media consumption - especially from the movies. This course examines how our ideas about science have been constructed at the movies and on television, and how science and cinema, their histories, philosophies, and visual cultures, are interconnected.
Instructor: Shell.

ChE/Ch 164.
Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc or instructor's permission.
An introduction to the fundamentals and simple applications of statistical thermodynamics. Foundation of statistical mechanics; partition functions for various ensembles and their connection to thermodynamics; fluctuations; noninteracting quantum and classical gases; heat capacity of solids; adsorption; phase transitions and order parameters; linear response theory; structure of classical fluids; computer simulation methods.
Instructors: Wang, Chan.

EE 164.
Stochastic and Adaptive Signal Processing.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM/EE/IDS 116 or equivalent.
Fundamentals of linear estimation theory are studied, with applications to stochastic and adaptive signal processing. Topics include deterministic and stochastic least-squares estimation, the innovations process, Wiener filtering and spectral factorization, state-space structure and Kalman filters, array and fast array algorithms, displacement structure and fast algorithms, robust estimation theory and LMS and RLS adaptive fields. Given in alternate years; Not Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hassibi.

En 164.
Contemporary Black Diasporic Literature and Culture.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
What is a Black diasporic analytic and how might it deepen our understandings of the cultural, environmental, literary, and political implications of globalization and racialization today? The literary and expressive genius of Black people across the global African diaspora has resulted in an extensive tradition of Black diasporic analytic works that have become unique portraits of a variety of Black international experiences within and beyond English-speaking nations. While this course focuses on contemporary Black diasporic literature and culture, it will nevertheless foreground the various linguistic, literary, and national histories that inform and shape this body of work. Additionally, students will learn how recent Black diasporic literature and culture have in turn shaped our current understandings of diaspora, family, gender, history, identity, labor, migration, nation, race, sexuality, and more. Overall, this course will introduce students to several pivotal Black diasporic literary and cultural works; representative modes of criticism and methodologies in the disciplines of diaspora studies; and the cultural, historical, and social realities of Black lives from the 1980s to today. All readings will be provided in English.
Instructor: Murphy.

Ge 164.
Mineral Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ge 11 ad or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Introduction to the mineral physics of Earth's interior. Topics covered: mineralogy and phase transitions at high pressures and temperatures; elasticity and equations of state; vibrational, electronic, and transport properties; application of mineral physics data to Earth and planetary interiors.
Instructor: Jackson.

NB/Bi/CNS 164.
Tools of Neurobiology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or equivalent.
Offers a broad survey of methods and approaches to understanding in modern neurobiology. The focus is on understanding the tools of the discipline, and their use will be illustrated with current research results. Topics include: molecular genetics, disease models, transgenic and knock-in technology, virus tools, tracing methods, gene profiling, light and electron microscopy, optogenetics, optical and electrical recording, neural coding, quantitative behavior, modeling and theory.
Instructor: Meister.

VC/H/HPS 164.
Fashion and Waste.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Before the Industrial Revolution, new clothes were few and far between. By the early 1800s, new industrial recycling processes enabled wool rags to be reprocessed into new suits, and for the first time the working class gained access to 'Sunday finery.' Dressing better meant a chance at increased social mobility. Today we take for granted fast fashion and disposable clothing. This course examines the complex interrelationship among history, technology, and the ways in which we construct our own identities through clothing; visual, textile and other material culture sources will be front and center. Students will dig into their own closets, memories, and dreams. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Shell.

Ae/CE 165 ab.
Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures.
9 units (2-2-5):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 a.
Introduction and fabrication technology, elastic deformation of composites, stiffness bounds, on- and off-axis elastic constants for a lamina, elastic deformation of multidirectional laminates (lamination theory, ABD matrix), effective hygrothermal properties, mechanisms of yield and failure for a laminate, strength of a single ply, failure models, splitting and delamination. Experimental methods for characterization and testing of composite materials. Design criteria, application of design methods to select a suitable laminate using composite design software, hand layup of a simple laminate and measurement of its stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients. Not offered 2021-2022

AM/ME 165.
Finite Elasticity.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ae/Ge/ME 160 a.
Finite theory of elasticity: constitutive theory, semi-inverse methods. Variational methods. Applications to problems of current interest. Not offered 2021-22.

Bi 165.
Microbiology Research: Practice and Proposal.
6 units (2-3-1):
first term.
The course will serve to introduce graduate students to 1) the process of writing fellowships to train students in preparing effective funding applications; 2) ongoing research projects on campus involving the isolation, culture, and characterization of microbes and microbial communities as well as projects in other fields; and 3) presentation of research and asking questions in research presentations. The first half of the class will involve training in grant writing by drafting an NSF-GRFP proposal. The second half of the class will involve giving chalk talk research presentations. Students can apply from all departments; priority will be given to those in microbiology. Enrollment is limited to instructor approval.
Instructor: Hoy.

ChE/Ch 165.
Chemical Thermodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ChE 63 ab or instructor's permission.
An advanced course emphasizing the conceptual structure of modern thermodynamics and its applications. Review of the laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic potentials and Legendre transform; equilibrium and stability conditions; metastability and phase separation kinetics; thermodynamics of single-component fluid and binary mixtures; models for solutions; phase and chemical equilibria; surface and interface thermodynamics; electrolytes and polymeric liquids.
Instructor: Wang.

CS/CNS/EE/IDS 165.
Foundations of Machine Learning and Statistical Inference.
12 units (3-3-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CMS/ACM/IDS 113, ACM/EE/IDS 116, CS 156a, ACM/CS/IDS 157 or instructor's permission.
The course assumes students are comfortable with analysis, probability, statistics, and basic programming. This course will cover core concepts in machine learning and statistical inference. The ML concepts covered are spectral methods (matrices and tensors), non-convex optimization, probabilistic models, neural networks, representation theory, and generalization. In statistical inference, the topics covered are detection and estimation, sufficient statistics, Cramer-Rao bounds, Rao-Blackwell theory, variational inference, and multiple testing. In addition to covering the core concepts, the course encourages students to ask critical questions such as: How relevant is theory in the age of deep learning? What are the outstanding open problems? Assignments will include exploring failure modes of popular algorithms, in addition to traditional problem-solving type questions.
Instructor: Anandkumar.

En 165.
Black Feminist and Womanist Literature and Thought.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
For centuries, Black feminists, especially queer and trans women, and non-binary and queer folx, writing in Africa, the Caribbean, Europe, the United States, and more, have used literature to reimagine feminisms. In the decades following the second-wave feminist movement, a body of writing coalesced around the terms "Black feminist" and "womanist." These years are remembered for decolonization and postcolonialism; Anita Hill's testimony; the passing of Title IX; the first Take Back the Night marches; the introduction of terms "intersectionality" by KimberlÃ© Williams Crenshaw and "third-wave feminism" by Rebecca Walker; the widespread publishing of works by feminists; the creation of Ethnic Studies and Women's and Gender Studies departments across institutions of higher education; and more. It was a moment in which Black people across identities and national origins wrote a number of works that radically retheorized family, home, gender, love, race, sexuality, work, and more, in ways that challenged cultures of violence in favor of imagining beloved communities. In this course, students will read, discuss, and better understand multiple literary and critical works participating in Black feminisms in order to then theorize new possibilities for Black feminist futures.
Instructor: Murphy.

Ge 165.
Geophysical Data Analysis and Seismic Imaging.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: basic linear algebra and Fourier transforms.
Introduction to modern digital analysis: discrete Fourier transforms, filters, correlation, convolution, deconvolution and auto-regressive models. Imaging with seismic reflection and refraction data, tomography, receiver functions and surface waves.
Instructor: Clayton.

HPS/Pl 165.
Selected Topics in Philosophy of Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
Instructors: Staff, visiting lecturers.

CS/EE/IDS 166.
Computational Cameras.
12 units (3-3-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 104 or ACM 107 or equivalent.
Computational cameras overcome the limitations of traditional cameras, by moving part of the image formation process from hardware to software. In this course, we will study this emerging multi-disciplinary field at the intersection of signal processing, applied optics, computer graphics, and vision. At the start of the course, we will study modern image processing and image editing pipelines, including those encountered on DSLR cameras and mobile phones. Then we will study the physical and computational aspects of tasks such as coded photography, light-field imaging, astronomical imaging, medical imaging, and time-of-flight cameras. The course has a strong hands-on component, in the form of homework assignments and a final project. In the homework assignments, students will have the opportunity to implement many of the techniques covered in the class. Example homework assignments include building an end-to-end HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging pipeline, implementing Poisson image editing, refocusing a light-field image, and making your own lensless "scotch-tape" camera.
Instructor: Bouman.

ESE/Bi 166.
Microbial Physiology.
9 units (3-1-5):
first term.
Prerequisites: one year of general biology recommended.
A course on growth and functions in the prokaryotic cell. Topics covered: growth, transport of small molecules, protein excretion, membrane bioenergetics, energy metabolism, motility, chemotaxis, global regulators, and metabolic integration.
Instructor: Leadbetter.

Ge 166.
Hydrology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Math 1 or equivalent.
Introduction to hydrology. Focus will be on how water moves on earth, including in groundwater, rivers, oceans, glaciers, and the atmosphere. Class will be based in fluid mechanics, which will be covered. Specific topics will include the Navier-Stokes equation, Darcy's law, aquifer flow, contaminant transport, turbulent flow, gravity waves, tsunami propagation, geostrophic currents, Ekman transport, glacier flow laws, and the Hadley circulation. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

HPS/H 166.
Historical Perspectives on the Relations between Science and Religion.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The course develops a framework for understanding the changing relations between science and religion in Western culture since antiquity. Focus will be on the ways in which the conceptual, personal, and social boundaries between the two domains have been reshaped over the centuries. Questions to be addressed include the extent to which a particular religious doctrine was more or less amenable to scientific work in a given period, how scientific activity carved an autonomous domain, and the roles played by scientific activity in the overall process of secularization.
Instructor: Feingold.

MS/ME 166.
Fracture of Brittle Solids.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing or MS 115 and MS 116.
The mechanical response of brittle materials (ceramics, glasses and some network polymers) will be treated using classical elasticity, energy criteria, and fracture mechanics. The influence of environment and microstructure on mechanical behavior will be explored. Transformation toughened systems, large-grain crack-bridging systems, nanostructured ceramics, porous ceramics, anomalous glasses, and the role of residual stresses will be highlighted. Strength, flaw statistics and reliability will be discussed.
Instructor: Faber.

EE/CS/IDS 167.
Introduction to Data Compression and Storage.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ma 3 or ACM/EE/IDS 116.
The course will introduce the students to the basic principles and techniques of codes for data compression and storage. The students will master the basic algorithms used for lossless and lossy compression of digital and analog data and the major ideas behind coding for flash memories. Topics include the Huffman code, the arithmetic code, Lempel-Ziv dictionary techniques, scalar and vector quantizers, transform coding; codes for constrained storage systems. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Kostina.

Ge 167.
Tectonic Geodesy.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: a working knowledge of unix/linux or equivalent, linear algebra, and coursework in geophysics.
An introduction to the use of modern geodetic observations (e.g., GPS and InSAR) to constrain crustal deformation models. Secular velocity fields, coseismic and time-dependent processes; volcano deformation and seasonal loading phenomena. Basic inverse approaches for parameter estimation and basic temporal filtering algorithms. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Simons.

HPS/H 167.
Experimenting with History/Historic Experiment.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc, and Ph 2 abc (may be taken concurrently).
This course uses a combination of lectures with hands-on laboratory work to bring out the methods, techniques, and knowledge that were involved in building and conducting historical experiments. We will connect our laboratory work with the debates and claims made by the original discoverers, asking such questions as how experimental facts have been connected to theories, how anomalies arise and are handled, and what sorts of conditions make historically for good data. Typical experiments might include investigations of refraction, laws of electric force, interference of polarized light, electromagnetic induction, or resonating circuits and electric waves. We will reconstruct instrumentation and experimental apparatus based on a close reading of original sources.
Instructor: Buchwald.

L 167.
Latin Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Three years of high-school Latin.
Major works of Latin literature, usually one per term. No work will be studied more than once in four years and students may repeat the course for credit.
Instructor: Pigman.

ESE/Bi 168.
Microbial Metabolic Diversity.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ESE 142, ESE/Bi 166.
A course on the metabolic diversity of microorganisms. Basic thermodynamic principles governing energy conservation will be discussed, with emphasis placed on photosynthesis and respiration. Students will be exposed to genetic, genomic, and biochemical techniques that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of cellular electron transfer underlying these metabolisms. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Newman.

HPS/H 168.
History of Electromagnetism and Heat Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc, and Ph 2 abc (may be taken concurrently).
This course covers the development of electromagnetism and thermal science from its beginnings in the early 18th century through the early 20th century. Topics covered include electrostatics, magnetostatics, electrodynamics, Maxwell's field theory, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics as well as related experimental discoveries. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Buchwald.

MedE/EE/BE 168 abc.
Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging.
9 units (4-0-5) each:
parts a and b are taught in second and third terms in odd academic years, and part c is taught in second term in even academic years.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Part a covers the principles of optical photon transport in biological tissue. Topics include a brief introduction to biomedical optics, single-scatterer theories, Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport, convolution for broad-beam responses, radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory, hybrid Monte Carlo method and diffusion theory, and sensing of optical properties and spectroscopy, (absorption, elastic scattering, Raman scattering, and fluorescence). Part b covers established optical imaging technologies. Topics include ballistic imaging (confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, super-resolution microscopy, etc.), optical coherence tomography, Mueller optical coherence tomography, and diffuse optical tomography. Part c covers emerging optical imaging technologies. Topics include photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound-modulated optical tomography, optical time reversal (wavefront shaping/engineering), and ultrafast imaging. MedE/EE/BE 168ab offered 2021-2022. MedE/EE/BE 168c not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Wang.

Ge 169 abcd.
Readings in Geophysics.
6 units (3-0-3):
first, second, third, fourth terms.
Reading courses are offered to teach students to read critically the work of others and to broaden their knowledge about specific topics. Each student will be required to write a short summary of each paper that summarizes the main goals of the paper, to give an assessment of how well the author achieved those goals, and to point out related issues not discussed in the paper. Each student will be expected to lead the discussion on one or more papers. The leader will summarize the discussion on the paper(s) in writing. A list of topics offered each year will be posted on the Web. Individual terms may be taken for credit multiple times without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

HPS/H 169.
Selected Topics in the History of Science and Technology.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
Instructors: Staff, visiting lecturers.

ME/CS/EE 169.
Mobile Robots.
9 units (2-7-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: ME/CS/EE 133b, or with permission of instructor.
Mobile robots need to perceive their environment and localize themselves with respect to maps thereof. They further require planners to move along collision-free paths. This course builds up mobile robots in team-based projects, writing the software from low-level hardware I/O to high level algorithms. The final systems will autonomously maneuver to reach their goals or track various objectives.
Instructor: Niemeyer.

VC 169.
The Arts of Dynastic China.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A survey of the development of Chinese art in which the major achievements in architecture, sculpture, painting, calligraphy, and ceramics will be studied in their cultural contexts from prehistory through the Manchu domination of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Emphasis will be placed on the aesthetic appreciation of Chinese art as molded by the philosophies, religions, and history of China. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Wolfgram.

ACM/EE/IDS 170.
Mathematics of Signal Processing.
12 units (3-0-9):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM/IDS 104, CMS/ACM/IDS 113, and ACM/EE/IDS 116; or instructor's permission.
This course covers classical and modern approaches to problems in signal processing. Problems may include denoising, deconvolution, spectral estimation, direction-of-arrival estimation, array processing, independent component analysis, system identification, filter design, and transform coding. Methods rely heavily on linear algebra, convex optimization, and stochastic modeling. In particular, the class will cover techniques based on least-squares and on sparse modeling. Throughout the course, a computational viewpoint will be emphasized. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Hassibi.

BMB/Bi/Ch 170.
Biochemistry and Biophysics of Macromolecules and Molecular Assemblies.
9 units (3- 0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch/Bi 110.
Detailed analysis of the structures of the four classes of biological molecules and the forces that shape them. Introduction to molecular biological and visualization techniques. Not offered 2021-2022.

HPS/H 170.
History of Light from Antiquity to the 20th Century.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc, and Ph 2 abc (may be taken concurrently).
A study of the experimental, mathematical, and theoretical developments concerning light, from the time of Ptolemy in the 2nd century A.D. to the production of electromagnetic optics in the 20th century. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Buchwald.

L 170 abc.
Introduction to Chinese.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
An introductory course in standard Chinese (Mandarin) designed for students with no previous knowledge of the language. The course introduces the fundamentals of Chinese, including pronunciation, grammar, and Chinese characters, emphasizing the four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. By the end of the three-term sequence, students will have acquired knowledge of basic rules of grammar and the ability to converse, read, and write on simple topics of daily life, and will have command of more than 800 Chinese compounds and 700 characters.
Instructor: Wang.

VC 170.
Special Topics in Visual Culture.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
An advanced humanities course on a special topic in visual culture. Topics may include art history, film, digital and print media, architecture, photography or cartography. It is usually taught by new or visiting faculty. The course may be re-taken for credit except as noted in the course announcement. Limited to 15 students. See registrar's announcement for details.
Instructor: Staff.

CS/CNS 171.
Computer Graphics Laboratory.
12 units (3-6-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: Extensive programming experience and proficiency in linear algebra, starting with CS2 and Ma1b.
This is a challenging course that introduces the basic ideas behind computer graphics and some of its fundamental algorithms. Topics include graphics input and output, the graphics pipeline, sampling and image manipulation, three-dimensional transformations and interactive modeling, basics of physically based modeling and animation, simple shading models and their hardware implementation, and some of the fundamental algorithms of scientific visualization. Students will be required to perform significant implementations.
Instructor: Barr.

ESE/Ge/Ch 171.
Atmospheric Chemistry I.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 1 or equivalent.
A detailed course about chemical transformation in Earth's atmosphere. Kinetics, spectroscopy, and thermodynamics of gas-phase chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere; sources, sinks, and lifetimes of trace atmospheric species; stratospheric ozone chemistry; oxidation mechanisms in the troposphere; aerosol chemistry.
Instructors: Seinfeld, Wennberg.

HPS/H 171.
History of Mechanics from Galileo through Euler.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc, and Ph 2 abc (may be taken concurrently).
This course covers developments in mechanics, as well as related aspects of mathematics and models of nature, from just before the time of Galileo through the middle of the 18th century, which saw the creation of fluid and rotational dynamics in the hands of Euler and others. Not offered 2021-2022.

L 171 abc.
Elementary Chinese for Heritage Learners.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Prior exposure to the language.
A streamlined course designed for students who have acquired some speaking, writing, or reading skills, either from home or school. The course aims at consolidating and developing the students' ability in listening, conversation, reading, and writing. By the end of the three-term sequence, students should have command of 2000 Chinese compounds and 1500 characters, and be able to live or work in a Chinese speaking environment. Students who completed L 171 abc can advance to L173 ab (Advanced Chinese)
Instructor: Ming.

MS/APh 171.
Inelastic Scattering of Materials, Molecules, and Condensed Matter.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: EE/APh 131 or MS 132 or equivalent.
Review of Patterson function and memory function for space or time correlations. Van Hove function for correlated dynamics in space and time, especially for materials with thermal energy. Dynamical structure factors for coherent scattering from solids and liquids. Measurements of energy and momentum of dispersive excitations in crystals using neutrons, x-rays, and electrons. Additional topics to be selected from the following list: incoherent inelastic scattering and the thermodynamic partition function, transport of thermal energy, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, quasielastic scattering, sideband information in coherent inelastic scattering, transition from quantum to classical scattering. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Fultz.

Ph 171.
Reading and Independent Study.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Occasionally, advanced work involving reading, special problems, or independent study is carried out under the supervision of an instructor. Approval of the instructor and of the student's departmental adviser must be obtained before registering. The instructor will complete a student evaluation at the end of the term. Graded pass/fail.

VC 171.
Arts of Buddhism.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
An examination of the impact of Buddhism on the arts and cultures of India, Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan from its earliest imagery in the 4th century B.C.E. India through various doctrinal transformations to the Zen revival of 18th-century Japan. Select monuments of Buddhist art, including architecture, painting, sculpture, and ritual objects, will serve as focal points for discussions on their aesthetic principles and for explorations into the religious, social, and cultural contexts that underlie their creation.
Instructor: Wolfgram.

ESE/Ge/Ch 172.
Atmospheric Chemistry II.
3 units (3-0-0):
first term.
Prerequisites: ESE/Ge/Ch 171 or equivalent.
A lecture and discussion course about active research in atmospheric chemistry. Potential topics include halogen chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere; aerosol formation in remote environments; coupling of dynamics and photochemistry; development and use of modern remote-sensing and in situ instrumentation. Graded pass/fail. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Seinfeld, Wennberg.

HPS/H 172.
History of Mathematics: A Global View with Close-ups.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
The course will provide students with a brief yet adequate survey of the history of mathematics, characterizing the main developments and placing these in their chronological, cultural, and scientific contexts. A more detailed study of a few themes, such as Archimedes' approach to infinite processes, the changing meanings of "analysis" in mathematics, Descartes' analytic geometry, and the axiomatization of geometry c. 1900; students' input in the choice of these themes will be welcomed. Not offered 2021-2022.

L 172 abc.
Intermediate Chinese.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: L 170 abc or L 171 abc or equivalent.
A course designed to meet the personal interests and future professional goals of students who have had one year of elementary modern Chinese. Students will learn new vocabulary, sentence patterns, idiomatic expressions, and proverbs, as well as insights into Chinese society, culture, and customs.
Instructor: Wang.

Ph 172.
Research in Physics.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Undergraduate students registering for 6 or more units of Ph 172 must provide a brief written summary of their work, not to exceed 3 pages, to the option rep at the end of the term. Approval of the student's research supervisor and departmental adviser must be obtained before registering. Graded pass/fail.

PS/Ec 172.
Game Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ec 11 or PS 12 and one from the following list: ACM 116, ACM 117, Ma 3, or Ma/ACM/IDS 140ab.
This course is an introduction to non-cooperative game theory, with applications to political science and economics. It covers the theories of normal-form games and extensive-form games, and introduces solutions concepts that are relevant for situations of complete and incomplete information. The basic theory of repeated games is introduced. Applications are to auction theory and asymmetric information in trading models, cheap talk and voting rules in congress, among many others.
Instructor: Tamuz.

VC 172.
Heritage and Its Discontents: Historic Conservation and the Battlegrounds of Memory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
What makes an old building, artifact, or custom "historic"? Which historic things are worth preserving? This course explores the aesthetic, political, social, and environmental dimensions of heritage culture. Moving from local conservation efforts to comparative frameworks of national and global heritage, we will examine the management of built and natural environments as it pertains to questions of narrative, values, standards of beauty, and justice. From Caltech's own campus to the Watts Towers and the National Park Service, to UNESCO and the architectural legacies of the Atlantic slave trade, our class will grapple with the theories, practices, and debates of heritage conservation as they determine what gets preserved and which stories get told. Readings/viewings will be supplemented with field trips to heritage sites in Pasadena and Los Angeles.
Instructors: Hori, Jurca.

BMB/Bi/Ch 173.
Biophysical/Structural Methods.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Basic principles of modern biophysical and structural methods used to interrogate macromolecules from the atomic to cellular levels, including light and electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, single molecule techniques, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance, mass spectrometry, and molecular dynamics and systems biological simulations. Not offered 2020-21.
Instructors: Jensen, and other guest lecturers.

CE/ME/Ge 173.
Mechanics of Soils.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Continuum Mechanics-Ae/Ge/ME 160a.
Basic principles of stiffness, deformation, effective stress and strength of soils, including sands, clays and silts. Elements of soil behavior such as stress-strain-strength behavior of clays, effects of sample disturbance, anisotropy, and strain rate; strength and compression of granular soils; consolidation theory and settlement analysis; and critical state soil mechanics. Not offered 2021-22.

HPS/H 173.
Carving Nature's Joints: Histories of Nature's Order.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
In Plato's Phaedrus, Socrates famously described the virtues of two ways of looking at the world. The first entailed "seeing together things that are scattered about everywhere and collecting them into one kind," while the second was the skill "to cut up each kind according to its species along its natural joints, and to try not to splinter any part, as a bad butcher might do." In a similar sentiment, Darwin wrote in 1857, "It is good to have hair-splitters and lumpers." How have scientists and laypeople perceived similarities and differences in the living world? How have they divided nature into distinct kinds and individuals? How have they distinguished between parts and wholes? Where have they positioned human beings within nature's order? What were the consequences of finding different kinds of order in nature? This course explores these and related questions historically. We will consider different approaches to making sense of nature, and how a multitude of perspectives have been brought to bear on this ordering project. Topics covered include taxonomy and classification, race science and scientific racism, gender and sex differences, disease categories and immune selfhood, and symbioses and biogeochemical cycles.
Instructor: Kollmer.

L 173 ab.
Advanced Chinese.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: L 171abc, L 172abc or equivalent.
A course designed as a bridge between language and content courses. It provides the opportunity to further develop overall language proficiency through reading essays on Chinese culture, stories, and news editorials. Multimedia are included. By the end of L173ab, students should have acquired the basic skills to read and research about Chinese culture and society. Classes are conducted primarily in Chinese.
Instructor: Ming.

BMB/Bi/Ch 174.
Advanced Topics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics.
6 units (3-0-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch/Bi 110 or equivalent.
Discussion of research fields in biochemistry and molecular biophysics at Caltech. Development of skills in literature analysis and information synthesis.
Instructors: Chong, Semlow, and guest lecturers.

ChE 174.
Special Topics in Transport Phenomena.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 and ChE 151 ab or instructor's permission.
May be repeated for credit. Advanced problems in heat, mass, and momentum transfer. Introduction to mechanics of complex fluids; physicochemical hydrodynamics; microstructured fluids; colloidal dispersions and active matter. Other topics may be discussed depending on class needs and interests. Not offered 2021-2022.

CS/CNS 174.
Computer Graphics Projects.
12 units (3-6-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Extensive programming experience, CS/CNS 171 or instructor's permission.
This laboratory class offers students an opportunity for independent work including recent computer graphics research. In coordination with the instructor, students select a computer graphics modeling, rendering, interaction, or related algorithm and implement it. Students are required to present their work in class and discuss the results of their implementation and possible improvements to the basic methods. May be repeated for credit with instructor's permission. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Barr.

HPS/H 174.
Vital Instruments: Biotechnology in Global Perspective.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Humans excel at using other organisms, including other humans, as means to ends. From the beginnings of agriculture, our species has cultivated crops, livestock, and microbial fermenters as living technologies of production. In modern industrial economies, human uses of life have undergone radical changes, as have the values humans assigned different forms of life. Agriculture underwent rationalization and intensification, increasing yields many times over. Scaled-up fermentation techniques served to preserve food, manufacture drugs, and process wastes. In vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer permitted dramatic interventions in sexual reproduction. This course will explore these and other histories of biotechnology across different temporal, geographic, and cultural contexts, paying special attention to the ambivalent relationships that arose between user and used in such instrumentalizations of life.
Instructor: Kollmer.

Hum 174.
Topics in Masterpieces of Chinese Writing.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Offered concurrently with L 174. Reading and discussion of representative Chinese written work throughout Chinese history, including philosophical texts and literary works in different genres. Students are expected to examine these works in light of their sociopolitical and historical contexts. Students who write papers in Chinese may enroll in this class as L 174. This course can be repeated for credit when the course content changes.
Instructor: Ming.

L 174.
Topics in Masterpieces of Chinese Writing.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Offered concurrently with Hum 174. Reading and discussion of representative Chinese written work throughout Chinese history, including philosophical texts and literary works in different genres. Students are expected to examine these works in light of their sociopolitical and historical contexts. Students who write papers in English may enroll in this class as Hum 174, which satisfies the advanced humanities requirement. This course can be repeated for credit when the course content changes.
Instructor: Ming.

ME/CE/Ge 174.
Mechanics of Rocks.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ae/Ge/ME 160a.
Basic principles of deformation, strength, and stressing of rocks. Elastic behavior, plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, creep, damage, friction, failure mechanisms, shear localization, and interaction of deformation processes with fluids. Engineering and geological applications. Not offered 2021-2022.

EE/CS/MedE 175.
Digital Circuits Analysis and Design with Complete VHDL and RTL Approach.
9 units (3-6-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: medium to advanced knowledge of digital electronics.
A careful balance between synthesis and analysis in the development of digital circuits plus a truly complete coverage of the VHDL language. The RTL (register transfer level) approach. Study of FPGA devices and comparison to ASIC alternatives. Tutorials of software and hardware tools employed in the course. VHDL infrastructure, including lexical elements, data types, operators, attributes, and complex data structures. Detailed review of combinational circuits followed by full VHDL coverage for combinational circuits plus recommended design practices. Detailed review of sequential circuits followed by full VHDL coverage for sequential circuits plus recommended design practices. Detailed review of state machines followed by full VHDL coverage and recommended design practices. Construction of VHDL libraries. Hierarchical design and practice on the hard task of project splitting. Automated simulation using VHDL testbenches. Designs are implemented in state-of-the-art FPGA boards. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Pedroni.

HPS/H 175.
Matter, Motion, and Force: Physical Astronomy from Ptolemy to Newton.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
The course will examine how elements of knowledge that evolved against significantly different cultural and religious backgrounds motivated the great scientific revolution of the 17th century. Not offered 2021-2022.

L 175.
French Conversation.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: L 102 abc and L 103 abc or equivalent.
Intense training in oral expression, pronunciation, vocabulary, listening comprehension and fluency. The class is designed for students planning to attend Ecole Polytechnique. Discussion materials and guest lectures will focus on technical language to prepare students for their classes in math and science. Taught in French. Enrollment limited to 12. L 175 can be repeated for credit since the content is never the same (different speakers, different articles discussed in class).
Instructor: Orcel.

VC 175.
The Art of Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course examines the frequent and significant encounters between what chemist/novelist C.P. Snow famously dubbed the "two cultures"-the sciences and the humanities-with an emphasis on forms and practices of visual culture that blur the boundaries between science, technology, and art. What role, we will ask, have visual culture and visuality played in the construction of scientific knowledge? Taking a broad historical and geographical approach, we will explore topics including representations of science and technology in the arts and popular culture; the use of photography, illustration, and visualization in the sciences; histories of visuality and visual devices; and the everyday visual practices of scientific inquiry.
Instructor: Jacobson.

CNS/Bi/Psy/NB 176.
Cognition.
9 units (4-0-5):
third term.
The cornerstone of current progress in understanding the mind, the brain, and the relationship between the two is the study of human and animal cognition. This course will provide an in-depth survey and analysis of behavioral observations, theoretical accounts, computational models, patient data, electrophysiological studies, and brain-imaging results on mental capacities such as attention, memory, emotion, object representation, language, and cognitive development. Given in alternate years; Not Offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Shimojo.

CS 176.
Computer Graphics Research.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: CS/CNS 171, or 173, or 174.
The course will go over recent research results in computer graphics, covering subjects from mesh processing (acquisition, compression, smoothing, parameterization, adaptive meshing), simulation for purposes of animation, rendering (both photo- and nonphotorealistic), geometric modeling primitives (image based, point based), and motion capture and editing. Other subjects may be treated as they appear in the recent literature. The goal of the course is to bring students up to the frontiers of computer graphics research and prepare them for their own research. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE/Ch 176.
Environmental Physical Organic Chemistry Part I.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41ab or instructor's permission.
This course will cover selected aspects of the chemistry of aquatic systems. Lectures cover basic principles of physical-organic chemistry relevant to the aquatic environment under realistic conditions. Specific topics covered in Part I include the basic principles of equilibrium chemical and physical processes important natural waters. Topics include: chemical potential, fugacity, phase transfer, acid-base chemistry, metal-ligand substitution chemistry, surface chemistry, octanol-water partitioning, air-water partitioning, partitioning to solid organic matter and biomedia, sorption processes, air-water exchange dynamics, and the kinetics and mechanisms of coupled organic and inorganic redox reactions. Thermodynamics, transport, phase transfer and kinetics are emphasized.
Instructor: Hoffmann.

HPS/H 176.
The Occult Origins of Modern Science: Alchemy, Astrology, and Magic.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Modern science is often described as a rational, empirical, and objective search for truth about nature. But how, when, and why did science come to acquire these qualities? Many scholars look to the exciting developments and discoveries of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Europe-the so-called "Scientific Revolution"-as the defining period for the emergence of modern science. If "modern" science is defined in these terms, then "premodern" science must have looked more like pseudo-science, superstition, or myth. However, that is far from the truth. In this course, we'll work to uncover the role that the occult sciences, including alchemy, astrology, and magic, played in the formation of modern science. Our studies of the occult sciences will force us to think more deeply about what distinguishes modern science from the occult sciences, and to question why their role in the development of modern science has also been obscured.
Instructor: Gaida.

L 176.
Chinese Conversation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: L 170abc or L 171abc or equivalent.
Training in oral expression, pronunciation, vocabulary, listening comprehension and fluency. The class is designed for students who have learned one year of Chinese and plan to incorporate it into their future professional or social lives. News, guest talks and discussion forums will be included. Can be repeated for credit as content changes every year.
Instructor: Ming.

Bi/BE 177.
Principles of Modern Microscopy.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Lectures and discussions on the underlying principles behind digital, video, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, confocal, and two-photon microscopy. The course will begin with basic geometric optics and characteristics of lenses and microscopes. Specific attention will be given to how different imaging elements such as filters, detectors, and objective lenses contribute to the final image. Course work will include critical evaluation of published images and design strategies for simple optical systems and the analysis and presentation of two- and three-dimensional images. The role of light microscopy in the history of science will be an underlying theme. No prior knowledge of microscopy will be assumed. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Collazo.

CS/ACM 177 a.
Discrete Differential Geometry: Theory and Applications.
9 units (3-3-3):
second term.
Working knowledge of multivariate calculus and linear algebra as well as fluency in some implementation language is expected. Subject matter covered: differential geometry of curves and surfaces, classical exterior calculus, discrete exterior calculus, sampling and reconstruction of differential forms, low dimensional algebraic and computational topology, Morse theory, Noether's theorem, Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition, structure preserving time integration, connections and their curvatures on complex line bundles. Applications include elastica and rods, surface parameterization, conformal surface deformations, computation of geodesics, tangent vector field design, connections, discrete thin shells, fluids, electromagnetism, and elasticity.
Instructors: SchrÃ¶der, Desbrun.

ESE/Ch 177.
Environmental Physical Organic Chemistry Part II.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ESE/Ch 176 or instructor's permission.
This course will cover selected aspects of the organic chemistry of aquatic systems and coupled air-water systems. Topics include photochemical transformations, biochemical transformations in sub-surface water, surface water, and sediments, heterogeneous surface reactions and catalysis, hydrolysis reactions, nucleophilic displacement and substitution reactions, elimination reactions, carboxylic acid ester hydrolysis, thiophosphoric acid ester hydrolysis, carbamate ester hydrolysis, and amide ester hydrolysis. The primary goal is to better understand factors controlling the fate and behavior of organic compounds and persistent organic pollutants in the global environment. Case studies will be presented.
Instructor: Hoffmann.

Ge 177.
Active Tectonics.
12 units (3-3-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 112 and Ge 106 or equivalent.
Introduction to techniques for identifying and quantifying active tectonic processes. Geomorphology, stratigraphy, structural geology, and geodesy applied to the study of active faults and folds in a variety of tectonic settings. Relation of seismicity and geodetic measurements to geologic structure and active tectonics processes. Review of case studies of selected earthquakes. Offered in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Avouac.

Ph 177.
Advanced Experimental Physics.
9 units (0-4-5):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 6, Ph 106 a, Ph 125 a or equivalents.
A one-term laboratory course which will require students to design, assemble, calibrate, and use an apparatus to conduct a nontrivial experiment involving quantum optics or other current research area of physics. Students will work as part of a small team to reproduce the results of a published research paper. Each team will be guided by an instructor who will meet weekly with the students; the students are each expected to spend an average of 4 hours/week in the laboratory and the remainder for study and design. Enrollment is limited. Permission of the instructors required.
Instructors: Rice, Hutzler.

BMB/Ch 178.
Macromolecular Function: kinetics, energetics, and mechanisms.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ch/Bi 110 or equivalent.
Discussion of the energetic principles and molecular mechanisms that underlie enzyme's catalytic proficiency and exquisite specificity. Principles of allostery, selectivity, and enzyme evolution. Practical kinetics and their application to more complex biological systems, including steady-state and pre-steadystate kinetics, kinetic simulations, and kinetics at single molecule resolution.
Instructor: Shan.

CS/IDS 178.
Numerical Algorithms and their Implementation.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: CS 2.
This course gives students the understanding necessary to choose and implement basic numerical algorithms as needed in everyday programming practice. Concepts include: sources of numerical error, stability, convergence, ill-conditioning, and efficiency. Algorithms covered include solution of linear systems (direct and iterative methods), orthogonalization, SVD, interpolation and approximation, numerical integration, solution of ODEs and PDEs, transform methods (Fourier, Wavelet), and low rank approximation such as multipole expansions.
Instructor: Desbrun.

En 178.
Medieval Subjectivities.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
In the seventeenth century, Descartes penned his famous expression "I think therefore I am!" and thus the modern subject was born-or so the simplified story goes. But long before the age of Descartes, the Middle Ages produced an astonishing range of theories and ideas about human selfhood, subjectivity, and interiority. For instance, writing from prison more than one thousand years earlier, Boethius came to realize that what distinguishes a human being from all other creatures is his capacity to "know himself." The meaning of this opaque statement and others like it will command our attention throughout this course, as we explore the diverse, distinctive, and often highly sophisticated notions of subjectivity that developed in the literatures of the Middle Ages. We will take up questions of human agency, free will, identity, self-consciousness, confession, and secrecy as we encounter them in some of the most exciting texts written during the period, including among others) Augustine's Confessions, Prudentius's Psychomachia, the Old English poem The Wanderer, the mystical writings of Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich, and Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge/ESE/Bi 178.
Microbial Ecology.
9 units (3-2-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: either ESE/Bi 166 or ESE/Bi 168 recommended.
Structural, phylogenetic, and metabolic diversity of microorganisms in nature. The course explores microbial interactions, relationships between diversity and physiology in modern and ancient environments, and influence of microbial community structure on biogeochemical cycles. Introduction to ecological principles and molecular approaches used in microbial ecology and geobiological investigations. Offered in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orphan.

CS 179.
GPU Programming.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Good working knowledge of C/C++.
Some experience with computer graphics algorithms preferred. The use of Graphics Processing Units for computer graphics rendering is well known, but their power for general parallel computation is only recently being explored. Parallel algorithms running on GPUs can often achieve up to 100x speedup over similar CPU algorithms. This course covers programming techniques for the Graphics processing unit, focusing on visualization and simulation of various systems. Labs will cover specific applications in graphics, mechanics, and signal processing. The course will use nVidia's parallel computing architecture, CUDA. Labwork requires extensive programming.
Instructor: Barr.

En 179.
Constituting Citizenship before the Fourteenth Amendment.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
What can a slave's narrative teach us about citizenship? How did the new nation identify citizens when its Constitution seemed so silent on the matter? And how did one tailor's pamphlet result in one of most massive restrictions of free speech in U.S. history? Our goal over the semester will be to sketch a story of African American literary production from the latter half of the eighteenth century to the Civil War and to tease out, through this literature, developing understandings of citizenship in the United States. We will read letters, poems, sermons, songs, constitutions and bylaws, short stories, and texts that simply defy easy categorization. We will also spend several sessions becoming familiar with key newspapers and magazines-Freedom's Journal, Frederick Douglass's Paper, The Anglo-African Magazine, Christian Recorder, and The Crisis-to deepen our understanding of the kinds of things people were reading and writing on a regular basis and the kinds of arguments they were making. Writers up for discussion may include: Frederick Douglass, James Madison, Harriet Jacobs, Henry David Thoreau, Sojourner Truth, and David Walker. Not offered 2021-2022.

ESE/ME/EST/Ec/ChE/EE 179.
Climate Change Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation.
3 units (3-0-0):
second term.
Climate change has already begun to impact life on the planet, and will continue in the coming decades. This class will explore particular causes and impacts of climate change, technologies to mitigate or adapt to those impacts, and the economic and social costs associated with them - particular focus will be paid to distributional issues, environmental and racial justice and equity intersections. The course will consist of 3-4 topical modules, each focused on a specific impact or sector (e.g. the electricity or transportation sector, climate impacts of food and agriculture, increasing fires and floods). Each module will contain lectures/content on the associated climate science background, engineering/technological developments to combat the issue, and an exploration of the economics and the inequities that exacerbate the situation, followed by group discussion and synthesis of the different perspectives.
Instructors: Wennberg, Staff.

Bi 180.
Plant and Soil Science.
9 units (2-2-5):
third term.
Plants comprise most of the mass of living things on land, serve as the ultimate source of almost all human food and energy, and are a dominating force in the carbon and oxygen cycles. This lecture, reading and lab course will introduce topics in plant systematics, evolution, genetics, genomics, development, and ecology, with emphasis on plant interactions with soil and the bacteria, fungi, and animals that inhabit it. Students from all options are welcome.
Instructor: Meyerowitz.

CE 180.
Experimental Methods in Earthquake Engineering.
9 units (1-5-3):
first term.
Prerequisites: AM/CE 151 abc or equivalent.
Laboratory work involving calibration and performance of basic transducers suitable for the measurement of strong earthquake ground motion, and of structural response to such motion. Study of principal methods of dynamic tests of structures, including generation of forces and measurement of structural response. Not offered 2021-22.

Ch 180.
Chemical Research.
Units by arrangement:
.
Offered to M.S. candidates in chemistry. Graded pass/fail.

CNS 180.
Research in Computation and Neural Systems.
Units by arrangement with faculty:
.
Offered to precandidacy students.

CS 180.
Masterâ€™s Thesis Research.
Units (total of 45) are determined in accordance with work accomplished:
.

EE/APh 180.
Nanotechnology.
6 units (3-0-3):
first term.
This course will explore the techniques and applications of nanofabrication and miniaturization of devices to the smallest scale. It will be focused on the understanding of the technology of miniaturization, its history and present trends towards building devices and structures on the nanometer scale. Examples of applications of nanotechnology in the electronics, communications, data storage and sensing world will be described, and the underlying physics as well as limitations of the present technology will be discussed.
Instructor: Scherer.

En 180.
Special Topics in English.
9 units (3-0-6):
offered by announcement.
This is an advanced humanities course on a specialized topic in English. It is usually taught by new or visiting faculty. The course may be re-taken for credit except as noted in the course announcement. Limited to 15 students. See registrar's announcement for details.
Instructors: Staff, visitor.

HPS/H 180.
Forbidden Knowledge.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Why does the notion of freedom of knowledge and teaching in science and engineering matter? What kinds of restrictions have been placed on scientists and engineers, their publications and institutions? Who restrained scientific and engineering knowledge of what sorts; for what reasons; and how successfully? These questions will be addressed by exploring the strategies developed by the U.S. research community to protect the international circulation of knowledge after World War II, when scientific freedom and the export of technical data had to be balanced with the needs of national security. Case studies will include the atomic bomb, the semiconductor industry in the 1970s and space technologies, notably rockets/missiles, in the 1990s. The threat to U.S. economics and military security posed by the Soviet Union in the Cold War, and by China today, has transformed the practice of research in university and in industry alike building new walls around the production and circulation of knowledge to affirm national sovereignty that is, all the while, being undermined by the global circulation of trained scientists and engineers. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Faculty.

CE 181 ab.
Engineering Seismology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Characteristics of potentially destructive earthquakes from the engineering point of view. Theory of seismometers, seismic waves in a continuum, plane waves in layered media, surface waves, basin waves, site effects, dynamic deformation of buildings, seismic sources, earthquake size scaling, earthquake hazard calculations, rupture dynamics. Not offered 2021-22.

Ec 181 ab.
Convex Analysis and Economic Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ma 1. Ec 121a is recommended.
Introduction to the use of convex analysis in economic theory. Includes separating hyperplane theorems, continuity and differentiability properties of convex and concave functions, support functions, subdifferentials, Fenchel conjugates, saddlepoint theorem, theorems of the alternative, polyhedra, linear programming, and duality in graphs. Introduction to discrete convex analysis and matroids. Emphasis is on the finite-dimensional case, but infinite-dimensional spaces will be discussed. Applications to core convergence, cost and production functions, mathematical finance, decision theory, incentive design, and game theory. Not offered 2021-2022.

En 181.
Hardy: The Wessex Novels.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course will examine the body of work that the late Victorian novelist Thomas Hardy published under the general title The Wessex Novels, that is, the sequence of works from Far from the Madding Crowd to Jude the Obscure. The six main novels will be read critically to give a sense of the totality of this greatest British regional novelist's achievement. Not offered 2021-2022.

Bi/BE 182.
Design Principles of Gene Regulatory Networks.
6 units (1-0-5):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8.
This course is focused on the genomic regulatory networks that direct developmental processes. We will discuss concepts that have contributed to our current understanding of gene regulatory networks and their importance in understanding the development and evolution of the animal body plan. Topics will include the developmental control of gene expression, transcriptional control systems, and experimental as well as computational approaches to network analysis. Examples that will be discussed include circuits and networks that operate in mammalian, sea urchin, and Drosophila systems. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Peter.

En 182.
Literature and the First Amendment.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
"Freedom of speech," writes Benjamin Cardozo in Palko v. Connecticut (1937), "is the matrix, the indispensable condition, of nearly every other form of freedom." We will go inside the matrix, focusing on how it has affected the books we read. This is not a course in constitutional law or political philosophy, but an opportunity to examine how American literary culture has intersected with law and politics. We will investigate the ways in which the meanings of "freedom," what it entails, and who is entitled to it have changed over time. Possible topics include the obscenity trials surrounding Allen Ginsberg's Howl and James Joyce's Ulysses, crackdowns on anti-war propagandists, and the legal battle between Hustler publisher Larry Flynt and televangelist and Moral Majority cofounder Jerry Falwell. Not offered 2021-2022.

APh/EE 183.
Physics of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Principles of semiconductor electronic structure, carrier transport properties, and optoelectronic properties relevant to semiconductor device physics. Fundamental performance aspects of basic and advanced semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Topics include energy band theory, carrier generation and recombination mechanisms, quasi-Fermi levels, carrier drift and diffusion transport, quantum transport.
Instructor: Nadj-Perge.

Bi/BE/CS 183.
Introduction to Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8, CS 2, Ma 3; or BE/Bi 103a; or instructor's permission.
Biology is becoming an increasingly data-intensive science. Many of the data challenges in the biological sciences are distinct from other scientific disciplines because of the complexity involved. This course will introduce key computational, probabilistic, and statistical methods that are common in computational biology and bioinformatics. We will integrate these theoretical aspects to discuss solutions to common challenges that reoccur throughout bioinformatics including algorithms and heuristics for tackling DNA sequence alignments, phylogenetic reconstructions, evolutionary analysis, and population and human genetics. We will discuss these topics in conjunction with common applications including the analysis of high throughput DNA sequencing data sets and analysis of gene expression from RNA-Seq data sets.
Instructors: Pachter, Thomson.

En 183.
Victorian Crime Fiction.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
In 19th-century Britain, for the first time in human history, more of a nation's citizens came to live in urban areas than in rural ones. This result of the Industrial Revolution produced many effects, but in the fiction of the period, one of the most striking was an obsession with the problem of crime. Victorian authors filled their novels with murder, prisons, poisonings, prostitution, criminals, and the new figure of the detective; in this class we will look at the social history, publishing developments, and formal dilemmas that underlay such a response. Authors studied may include Dickens, Collins, Braddon, Conan Doyle, Chesterton, and Conrad, among others.
Instructor: Gilmore.

Bi/CNS/NB 184.
The Primate Visual System.
9 units (3-1-5):
third term.
This class focuses on the primate visual system, investigating it from an experimental, psychophysical, and computational perspective. The course will focus on two essential problems: 3-D vision and object recognition. We will examine how a visual stimulus is represented starting in the retina, and ending in the frontal lobe, with a special emphasis placed on mechanisms for high-level vision in the parietal and temporal lobes. An important aspect of the course is the lab component in which students design and analyze their own fMRI experiment. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Tsao.

Bi/CNS/NB 185.
Large Scale Brain Networks.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
This class will focus on understanding what is known about the large-scale organization of the brain, focusing on the mammalian brain. What large scale brain networks exist and what are their principles of function? How is information flexibly routed from one area to another? What is the function of thalamocortical loops? We will examine large scale networks revealed by anatomical tracing, functional connectivity studies, and mRNA expression analyses, and explore the brain circuits mediating complex behaviors such as attention, memory, sleep, multisensory integration, decision making, and object vision. While each of these topics could cover an entire course in itself, our focus will be on understanding the master plan-how the components of each of these systems are put together and function as a whole. A key question we will delve into, from both a biological and a theoretical perspective, is: how is information flexibly routed from one brain area to another? We will discuss the communication through coherence hypothesis, small world networks, and sparse coding. Given in alternate years, not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Tsao.

EE/BE/MedE 185.
MEMS Technology and Devices.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: APh/EE 9 ab, or instructor's permission.
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have been broadly used for biochemical, medical, RF, and lab-on-a-chip applications. This course will cover both MEMS technologies (e.g., micro- and nanofabrication) and devices. For example, MEMS technologies include anisotropic wet etching, RIE, deep RIE, micro/nano molding and advanced packaging. This course will also cover various MEMS devices used in microsensors and actuators. Examples will include pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyros, FR filters, digital mirrors, microfluidics, micro total-analysis system, biomedical implants, etc. Not offered 2021-2022.

En 185.
Dickens and the Dickensian.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
The adjective "Dickensian" makes an almost daily appearance in today's newspapers, magazines, and other media sources. It is used to describe everything from outrageous political scandals, to Bollywood musicals, to multiplot novels. But what does the word really mean? And what part of Charles Dickens's output does it refer to? This class will consider some of Dickens's most famous works alongside a series of contemporary novels, all critically described in "Dickensian" terms. The main concern will be equally with style and form, and 19th-century and present-day circumstances of production (e.g., serialization, mass production, Web publication, etc.). Authors considered (aside from Dickens) may include Richard Price, Zadie Smith, Monica Ali, and Jonathan Franzen. Not offered 2021-2022.

H/HPS/VC 185.
Angels and Monsters: Cosmology, Anthropology, and the Ends of the World.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course explores late medieval European understandings of the origins, structure, and workings of the cosmos in the realms of theology, physics, astronomy, astrology, magic, and medicine. Attention is given to the position of humans as cultural creatures at the intersection of nature and spirit; as well as to the place of Christian Europeans in relation to non-Christians and other categories of outsiders within and beyond Europe. We will examine the knowledge system that anticipated racializing theories in the West.
Instructor: Wey-Gomez.

Pl 185.
Moral Philosophy.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
A survey of topics in moral philosophy. The emphasis will be on metaethical issues, although some normative questions may be addressed. Metaethical topics that may be covered include the fact/value distinction; the nature of right and wrong (consequentialism, deontological theories, rights-based ethical theories, virtue ethics); the status of moral judgments (cognitivism vs. noncognitivism, realism vs. irrealism); morality and psychology; moral relativism; moral skepticism; morality and self-interest; the nature of justice. The implications of these theories for various practical moral problems may also be considered. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Pham.

CNS/Bi/EE/CS/NB 186.
Vision: From Computational Theory to Neuronal Mechanisms.
12 units (4-4-4):
second term.
Lecture, laboratory, and project course aimed at understanding visual information processing, in both machines and the mammalian visual system. The course will emphasize an interdisciplinary approach aimed at understanding vision at several levels: computational theory, algorithms, psychophysics, and hardware (i.e., neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the mammalian visual system). The course will focus on early vision processes, in particular motion analysis, binocular stereo, brightness, color and texture analysis, visual attention and boundary detection. Students will be required to hand in approximately three homework assignments as well as complete one project integrating aspects of mathematical analysis, modeling, physiology, psychophysics, and engineering. Given in alternate years; Offered 2021-22.
Instructors: Andersen, Meister, Perona, Shimojo.

En 186.
The Novel of Education.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This class takes up a set of mostly very funny, mostly 20th century British novels to frame a simple-seeming, yet deceptively complicated set of questions: What does it mean to be educated? Who has access to education? What does an ideal education consist in? And ultimately: What is a university for? As we think through these questions we will read op/eds and investigative journalism in addition to fiction, and we will consider a variety of university-centered topics (determined by student interest) including issues of gender, class, privilege, race, and genius. Authors read may include Sayers, Larkin, Amis, C.P. Snow, Lodge, and Zadie Smith. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gilmore.

H/HPS/VC 186.
From Plato to Pluto: Maps, Exploration and Culture from Antiquity to the Present.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course covers a broad range of topics in the history of maps and exploration from Antiquity to the present. These topics range from the earliest visualizations of earth and space in the Classical world to contemporary techniques in interplanetary navigation. By way of maps, students will explore various ways in which different cultures have conceptualized and navigated earth and space. While maps emulate the world as perceived by the human eye, they, in fact, comprise a set of observations and perceptions of the relationship between bodies in space and time. Thus, students will study maps, and the exploration they enable, as windows to the cultures that have produced them, not only as scientific and technical artifacts to measure and navigate our world. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Ceva, Wey-Gomez.

CNS/Bi/Ph/CS/NB 187.
Neural Computation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: introductory neuroscience (Bi 150 or equivalent); mathematical methods (Bi 195 or equivalent); scientific programming.
This course aims at a quantitative understanding of how the nervous system computes. The goal is to link phenomena across scales from membrane proteins to cells, circuits, brain systems, and behavior. We will learn how to formulate these connections in terms of mathematical models, how to test these models experimentally, and how to interpret experimental data quantitatively. The concepts will be developed with motivation from some of the fascinating phenomena of animal behavior, such as: aerobatic control of insect flight, precise localization of sounds, sensing of single photons, reliable navigation and homing, rapid decision-making during escape, one-shot learning, and large-capacity recognition memory.
Instructors: Meister, Rutishauser.

EE/MedE 187.
VLSI and ULSI Technology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: APh/EE 9 ab, EE/APh 180 or instructor's permission.
This course is designed to cover the state-of-the-art micro/nanotechnologies for the fabrication of ULSI including BJT, CMOS, and BiCMOS. Technologies include lithography, diffusion, ion implantation, oxidation, plasma deposition and etching, etc. Topics also include the use of chemistry, thermal dynamics, mechanics, and physics. Not offered 2021-2022.

Bi 188.
Human Genetics and Genomics.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 122; or graduate standing and instructor's permission.
Introduction to the genetics of humans. Subjects covered include human genome structure, genetic diseases and predispositions, the human genome project, forensic use of human genetic markers, human variability, and human evolution. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Wold.

ChE/BE/MedE 188.
Molecular Imaging.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch/Bi 110, ChE 101 and ACM 95 or equivalent.
This course will cover the basic principles of biological and medical imaging technologies including magnetic resonance, ultrasound, nuclear imaging, fluorescence, bioluminescence and photoacoustics, and the design of chemical and biological probes to obtain molecular information about living systems using these modalities. Topics will include nuclear spin behavior, sound wave propagation, radioactive decay, photon absorption and scattering, spatial encoding, image reconstruction, statistical analysis, and molecular contrast mechanisms. The design of molecular imaging agents for biomarker detection, cell tracking, and dynamic imaging of cellular signals will be analyzed in terms of detection limits, kinetics, and biological effects. Participants in the course will develop proposals for new molecular imaging agents for applications such as functional brain imaging, cancer diagnosis, and cell therapy. Not offered 2021-2022.

BE/EE/MedE 189 ab.
Design and Construction of Biodevices.
189 a, 12 units (3-6-3) offered both first and third terms. 189b, 9 units (0-9-0) offered only third term:
.
Prerequisites: BE/EE/MedE 189 a must be taken before BE/EE/MedE 189 b.
Students will learn to use an Arduino micro-controller to interface sensing and actuation hardware with the computer. Students will learn and practice engineering design principles through a set of projects. In part a, students will design and implement biosensing systems, including a pulse monitor, a pulse oximeter, and a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction incubator. Part b is a student-initiated design project requiring instructor's permission for enrollment. Enrollment is limited to 24 students.
Instructors: Bois, Yang.

Bi/BMB 189.
The Cell Cycle.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 8 and Bi 9.
The course covers the mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells control their duplication in a properly regulated manner. A large emphasis will be placed on the controls that cells employ to replicate and segregate their chromosomes with the necessary precision. In addition, the course will examine the mechanisms by which cells detect and rectify damaged DNA throughout the cell cycle. These various processes, collectively known as checkpoint-regulatory mechanisms, lie at the heart of how organisms maintain genomic integrity throughout their lifetimes. These pathways are essential for the prevention of cancer, birth defects, and other maladies. As part of the course, students will give presentations on key publications in the field, including both classic papers and newer papers that employ cutting-edge technologies.
Instructor: Dunphy.

ACM 190.
Reading and Independent Study.
Units by arrangement:
.
Graded pass/fail only.

APh/EE 190 abc.
Quantum Electronics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 or equivalent.
Generation, manipulations, propagation, and applications of coherent radiation. The basic theory of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with resonant atomic transitions. Laser oscillation, important laser media, Gaussian beam modes, the electro-optic effect, nonlinear-optics theory, second harmonic generation, parametric oscillation, stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering. Other topics include light modulation, diffraction of light by sound, integrated optics, phase conjugate optics, and quantum noise theory. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 190.
Computational Astrophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 20-22 (undergraduates).
Introduction to essential numerical analysis and computational methods in astrophysics and astrophysical data analysis. Basic numerical methods and techniques; N-body simulations; fluid dynamics (SPH/grid-based); MHD; radiation transport; reaction networks; data analysis methods; numerical relativity. Not offered 2021-2022.

Bi 190.
Systems Genetics.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
Prerequisites: Bi 122.
Lectures covering how genetic and genomic analyses are used to understand biological systems. Emphasis is on genetic and genome-scale approaches used in model organisms such as yeast, flies, worms, and mice to elucidate the function of genes, genetic pathways and genetic networks. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Sternberg.

CDS 190.
Independent Work in Control and Dynamical Systems.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: CDS 110.
Research project in control and dynamical systems, supervised by a CDS faculty member.

ChE 190.
Special Problems in Chemical Engineering.
Up to 9 units by arrangement:
any term.
Prerequisites: Instructor's permission and adviser's approval must be obtained before registering.
Special courses of readings or laboratory instruction. The student should consult a member of the faculty and prepare a definite program of reading, computation, theory and/or experiment. The student must submit a summary of progress at midterm and, at the end of the quarter, a final assignment designed in consultation with the instructor. This course may be credited only once. Grading: either grades or pass/fail, as arranged with the instructor.
Instructor: Staff.

En 190.
Chaucer.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course devotes itself to the writings of the diplomat, courtier, bureaucrat, and poet, Geoffrey Chaucer. Best known for the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer also authored dream visions, lyrics, and philosophical meditations. This course will introduce you to some better-known and lesser-known works in the Chaucerian corpus, while also exploring questions central to the production and circulation of literature in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. What did it mean to "invent" a literary work in late medieval England? How did Chaucer imagine himself as a writer and reader? What are the hallmarks of Chaucerian style, and how did Chaucer become the canonical author he is today? We will read Chaucer's works in their original language, Middle English, working slowly enough to give participants time to familiarize themselves with syntax and spelling. No previous experience with the language is necessary. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Jahner.

Ge 190.
The Nature and Evolution of the Earth.
Units to be arranged:
Offered by announcement only.
Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in the earth sciences. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

BE/CS/CNS/Bi 191 ab.
Biomolecular Computation.
9 units (3-0-6) second term; (2-4-3) third term:
second, third term.
Prerequisites: none. Recommended: ChE/BE 163, CS 21, CS 129 ab, or equivalent.
This course investigates computation by molecular systems, emphasizing models of computation based on the underlying physics, chemistry, and organization of biological cells. We will explore programmability, complexity, simulation of, and reasoning about abstract models of chemical reaction networks, molecular folding, molecular self-assembly, and molecular motors, with an emphasis on universal architectures for computation, control, and construction within molecular systems. If time permits, we will also discuss biological example systems such as signal transduction, genetic regulatory networks, and the cytoskeleton; physical limits of computation, reversibility, reliability, and the role of noise, DNA-based computers and DNA nanotechnology. Part a develops fundamental results; part b is a reading and research course: classic and current papers will be discussed, and students will do projects on current research topics.
Instructor: Winfree.

En 191.
Masterworks of Contemporary Latin American Fiction.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course studies Latin America's most influential authors in the 20th and 21st centuries, with a focus on short stories and novellas produced by the region's avant-garde and "boom" generations. Authors may include Allende, Bombal, Borges, GarcÃa MÃ¡rquez, Quiroga, Poniatowska, and Vargas Llosa. All readings and discussions are in English. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 191.
Special Topics in Geochemistry.
Units to be arranged:
Offered by announcement only.
Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in geochemistry. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

H/L 191.
Perspectives on History through German Literature.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Industrialization, economic growth, and democracy came to Germany much later than to England and France, and the forms they took in Germany were filtered through the specific institutional character of Central Europe. German-speaking writers and intellectuals saw these trends from the perspective of indigenous intellectual traditions, and the resulting collisions of values and priorities largely shaped European and American social, political, and literary debates for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This course explores these writings (in English translation) against the historical background of Central European society, focusing on particular works of Goethe, Hoffmann, Heine, Nietzsche, Kafka, Rilke, and Mann. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dennison.

Ma 191 abc.
Selected Topics in Mathematics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Each term we expect to give between 0 and 6 (most often 2-3) topics courses in advanced mathematics covering an area of current research interest. These courses will be given as sections of 191. Students may register for this course multiple times even for multiple sections in a single term. The topics and instructors for each term and course descriptions will be listed on the math option website each term prior to the start of registration for that term.
Instructors: Burungale, Katz, Kechris, Zhu, Szumowicz, Dunn, Hutchcroft, Karpukhin, SchÃ¼lke.

Bi 192.
Introduction to Systems Biology.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ma 1abc, and either Bi 8, CS1, or ACM 95 or instructor's permission.
The course will explore what it means to analyze biology from a systems-level point of view. Given what biological systems must do and the constraints they face, what general properties must biological systems have? Students will explore design principles in biology, including plasticity, exploratory behavior, weak-linkage, constrains that deconstrain, robustness, optimality, and evolvability. The class will read the equivalent of 2-3 scientific papers every week. The format will be a seminar with active discussion from all students. Students from multiple backgrounds are welcome: non-biology or biology students interested in learning systems-level questions in biology. Limited enrollment.
Instructor: Goentoro.

Ge 192.
Special Topics in the Geological Sciences.
Units to be arranged:
Offered by announcement only.
Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in the geological sciences. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

H 192.
The Crusades.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course will introduce students to the series of religiously motivated European invasions of the Middle and Near East that began at the end of the eleventh century and that led to the creation of Latin Christian principalities in Palestine. Though the crusading movement came to embroil much of Europe itself, the course will focus strictly on the military expeditions to what the Crusaders called the Holy Land, and the history of the Crusader states up to the point of their destruction at the end of the thirteenth century. The course will be guided by the following questions: how did medieval Christianity justify wars of aggression against foreign peoples and religions? What motivated western Europeans to leave their homes and march into a hostile environment, where they often faced impoverishment if not death and where maintaining a Christian presence was a constant struggle? How did they manage to erect stable political entities in alien territory that lasted as long as they did, and how did they have to adapt their own culture to do so? Finally, how did the native peoples of the regions the Crusaders invaded and conquered-Muslim but also Christian and Jewish - perceive the Crusaders? How did the Crusaders' presence affect life in a region whose populations had their own ancient histories and patterns of life? Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Brown.

En/H 193.
Cervantes, Truth or Dare: Don Quixote in an Age of Empire.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Studies Cervantes's literary masterpiece, Don Quixote, with a view to the great upheavals that shaped the early modern world: Renaissance Europe's discovery of America; feudalism's demise and the rise of mass poverty; Reformation and Counter-Reformation; extermination of heretics and war against infidels; and the decline of the Hapsburg dynasty. The hapless protagonist of Don Quixote calls into question the boundaries between sanity and madness, truth and falsehood, history and fiction, objectivity and individual experience. What might be modern, perhaps even revolutionary, in Cervantes's dramatization of the moral and material dilemmas of his time? Conducted in English.
Instructor: Wey-Gomez.

Ge 193.
Special Topics in Geophysics.
Units to be arranged:
Offered by announcement only.
Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in geophysics. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 194.
Special Topics in Planetary Sciences: Europa Seminar.
Units to be arranged:
first term.
Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in planetary sciences. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Brown.

Bi/CNS/NB 195.
Mathematics in Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: calculus.
This course develops the mathematical methods needed for a quantitative understanding of biological phenomena, including data analysis, formulation of simple models, and the framing of quantitative questions. Topics include: probability and stochastic processes, linear algebra and transforms, dynamical systems, scientific programming.
Instructor: Thomson.

Ge 195.
Special Topics in Field Geology.
Units to be arranged:
.
Offered by announcement. Field experiences in different geological settings. Supporting lectures will usually occur before and during the field experience. This course will be scheduled only when special opportunities arise. Class may be taken more than once.
Instructor: Staff.

BE/CS 196 ab.
Design and Construction of Programmable Molecular Systems.
a = 12 units (2-4-6) second term; b = 9 units (2-4-3) third term:
second, third term.
Prerequisites: none.
This course will introduce students to the conceptual frameworks and tools of computer science as applied to molecular engineering, as well as to the practical realities of synthesizing and testing their designs in the laboratory. In part a, students will design and construct DNA circuits and self-assembled DNA nanostructures, as well as quantitatively analyze the designs and the experimental data. Students will learn laboratory techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and will use software tools and program in Mathematica. Part b is an open-ended design and build project requiring instructorâ€™s permission for enrollment. Enrollment in part a is limited to 24 students, and part b limited to 8 students.
Instructor: Qian.

Ge 196.
Special Topics in Atmospheres and Oceans.
Units to be arranged:
.
Offered by announcement only. Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in atmospheric and ocean sciences.
Instructor: Staff.

BE/Bi/CNS/NB 197.
Mentoring and Outreach.
Units to be arranged, up to 12 units per year:
taken in any term.
In consultation with, and with the approval of, a faculty advisor and the Caltech Center for Teaching, Learning, and Outreach. Students may obtain credit for engaging in volunteer efforts to promote public understanding of science; to mentor and tutor young people and underserved populations; or to otherwise contribute to the diversity, equity, and inclusiveness of the scientific enterprise. Students will be required to fill out short pre- and post-outreach activity forms to describe their proposal and to report on the results. Students may petition their option representative (graduate students) or academic advisor (undergraduate students) if they seek credits beyond the 12-unit limit. Offered pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

En/H 197.
American Literature and the Technologies of Reading.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
This course explores the material forms of American literature from the colonial era through the nineteenth century. We will study how and by whom books and other kinds of texts were produced, and how these forms shaped and were shaped by readers' engagement with them. Possible topics include the history of such printing technologies as presses, types, paper, ink, binding, and illustration; the business of bookmaking and the development of the publishing industry; the rise of literary authorship; the career of Benjamin Franklin; print, politics, and the American Revolution; and manuscript culture. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 197.
Special Topics in Geobiology.
Units to be arranged:
.
Offered by announcement only. Advanced-level discussions of problems of current interest in geobiological sciences. Students may enroll for any or all terms of this course without regard to sequence.
Instructor: Staff.

IDS 197.
Undergraduate Reading in the Information and Data Sciences.
Units are assigned in accordance with work accomplished:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Consent of supervisor is required before registering.
Supervised reading in the information and data sciences by undergraduates. The topic must be approved by the reading supervisor and a formal final report must be presented on completion of the term. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

Ay/Ge 198.
Special Topics in the Planetary Sciences.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Topic for 2021-2022 is Extrasolar Planets. Thousands of planets have been identified in orbit around other stars. Astronomers are now embarking on understanding the statistics of extrasolar planet populations and characterizing individual systems in detail, namely star-planet, planet-planet and planet-disk dynamical interactions, physical parameters of planets and their composition, weather phenomena, etc. Direct and indirect detection techniques are now completing the big picture of extra-solar planetary systems in all of their natural diversity. The seminar-style course will review the state of the art in exoplanet science, take up case studies, detail current and future instrument needs, and anticipate findings.
Instructor: Howard.

IDS 198.
Undergraduate Projects in Information and Data Sciences.
Units are assigned in accordance with work accomplished:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Consent of supervisor is required before registering.
Supervised research in the information and data sciences. The topic must be approved by the project supervisor and a formal report must be presented upon completion of the research. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

Ph 198.
Special Topics in Physics.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Topics will vary year to year and may include hands-on laboratory work, team projects and a survey of modern physics research.
Instructor: Staff.

IDS 199.
Undergraduate thesis in the Information and Data Sciences.
9 units (1-0-8):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission, which should be obtained sufficiently early to allow time for planning the research.
Individual research project, carried out under the supervision of a faculty member and approved by the option representative. Projects must include significant design effort and a written Report is required. Open only to upperclass students. Not offered on a pass/fail basis.
Instructor: Staff.

MedE 199.
Special Topics in Medical Engineering.
Units to be arranged, terms to be arranged:
.
Subject matter will change from term to term depending upon staff and student interest, but will generally center on the understanding and applying engineering for medical problems.
Instructor: Staff.

Ph 199.
Frontiers of Fundamental Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 ab, Ph 106 ab, or equivalent.
This course will explore the frontiers of research in particle physics and cosmology, focusing on the physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics include the Standard Model of particle physics in light of the discovery of the Higgs boson, work towards the characterization and measurements of the new particle's quantum properties, its implications on physics beyond the standard model, and its connection with the standard model of cosmology focusing on the dark matter challenge. The course is geared toward seniors and first-year graduate students who are not in particle physics, although students in particle physics are welcome to attend. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 200.
Advanced Research in Aerospace.
Units to be arranged:
.
Ae.E. or Ph.D. thesis level research under the direction of the staff. A written research report must be submitted during finals week each term.

AM 200.
Advanced Work in Applied Mechanics.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
A faculty mentor will oversee a student proposed, independent research or study project to meet the needs of graduate students. Graded pass/fail. The consent of a faculty mentor and a written report is required for each term of work.

APh 200.
Applied Physics Research.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Offered to graduate students in applied physics for research or reading. Students should consult their advisers before registering. Graded pass/fail.

BE 200.
Research in Bioengineering.
Units and term to be arranged:
.
By arrangement with members of the staff, properly qualified graduate students are directed in bioengineering research.

CE 200.
Advanced Work in Civil Engineering.
6 or more units as arranged:
any term.
A faculty mentor will oversee a student proposed, independent research or study project to meet the needs of graduate students. Graded pass/fail. The consent of a faculty mentor and a written report is required for each term.

ESE 200.
Advanced Topics in Environmental Science and Engineering.
Units by arrangement:
any term.
Course on contemporary topics in environmental science and engineering. Topics covered vary from year to year, depending on the interests of the students and staff.

ME 200.
Advanced Work in Mechanical Engineering.
:
.
A faculty mentor will oversee a student proposed, independent research or study project to meet the needs of graduate students. Graded pass/fail. The consent of a faculty mentor and a written report is required for each term of work.

MS 200.
Advanced Work in Materials Science.
:
.
The staff in materials science will arrange special courses or problems to meet the needs of advanced graduate students.

SS 200.
Selected Topics in Social Science.
Units to be determined by arrangement with instructors:
offered by announcement.
Instructors: Staff, visiting lecturers.

ACM 201.
Partial Differential Equations.
12 units (4-0-8):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab, ACM/IDS 101 ab, ACM 11 or equivalent.
This course offers an introduction to the theory of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) commonly encountered across mathematics, engineering and science. The goal of the course is to study properties of different classes of linear and nonlinear PDEs (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic) and the behavior of their solutions using tools from functional analysis with an emphasis on applications. We will discuss representative models from different areas such as: heat equation, wave equation, advection-reaction-diffusion equation, conservation laws, shocks, predator prey models, Burger's equation, kinetic equations, gradient flows, transport equations, integral equations, Helmholtz and SchrÃ¶dinger equations and Stoke's flow. In this course you will use analytical tools such as Gauss's theorem, Green's functions, weak solutions, existence and uniqueness theory, Sobolev spaces, well-posedness theory, asymptotic analysis, Fredholm theory, Fourier transforms and spectral theory. More advanced topics include: Perron's method, applications to irrotational flow, elasticity, electrostatics, special solutions, vibrations, Huygens' principle, Eikonal equations, spherical means, retarded potentials, water waves, various approximations, dispersion relations, Maxwell equations, gas dynamics, Riemann problems, single- and double-layer potentials, Navier-Stokes equations, Reynolds number, potential flow, boundary layer theory, subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 201 a.
Advanced Fluid Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent; AM 125 abc or ACM/IDS 101 (may be taken concurrently).
Foundations of the mechanics of real fluids. Basic concepts will be emphasized. Subjects covered will include a selection from the following topics: physical properties of real gases; the equations of motion of viscous and inviscid fluids; the dynamical significance of vorticity; vortex dynamics; exact solutions; motion at high Reynolds numbers; hydrodynamic stability; boundary layers; flow past bodies; compressible flow; subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow; shock waves.
Instructor: Pullin.

AM 201.
Advanced Topics in Applied Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
The faculty will prepare courses on advanced topics to meet the needs of graduate students.
Instructors: Minnich, Andrade.

BE 201.
Reading the Bioengineering Literature.
4 units (1-0-3):
second term.
Participants will read, discuss, and critique papers on diverse topics within the bioengineering literature. Offered only for Bioengineering graduate students.
Instructor: K. Wang.

CE 201.
Advanced Topics in Civil Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
The faculty will prepare courses on advanced topics to meet the needs of graduate students.
Instructors: Minnich, Andrade.

H 201.
Reading and Research for Graduate Students.
Units to be determined for the individual by the division:
.

ME 201.
Advanced Topics in Mechanical Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
The faculty will prepare courses on advanced topics to meet the needs of graduate students.
Instructors: Minnich, Andrade.

MedE 201 ab.
Principles and Design of Medical Devices.
9 units (3-0-6):
second and third term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
This course provides a broad coverage on the frontiers of medical diagnostic and therapeutic technologies and devices based on multidisciplinary engineering principles. 201a topics include FDA regulations, in vitro diagnostics, biosensors, electrograms, medical imaging technologies, medical implants, nanomedicine, cardiovascular engineering & technology, medical electronics, wireless communications through the skin and tissue, and medical robotics. 201b will emphasize medical devices for neural science and engineering, emphasizing the engineering fundamentals specific to neural applications. Topics include biocompatibility, biomaterials, implants and foreign body reaction, medical electronics, neural recording and neural stimulation. Devices include pacemakers/defibrillators, DBS, cochlear implants, retinal implants, spinal implants, footdrop implants, etc. Overall, the course will cover the scientific fundamentals of biology, chemistry, engineering, physics, and materials specific to medical applications. However, both the lectures and assignments will also emphasize the design aspects of the topics as well as up-to-date literature study.
Instructors: Gao (a), Tai (b).

Ph 201.
Candidacy Physics Fitness.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
The course will review problem solving techniques and physics applications from the undergraduate physics college curriculum. In particular, we will touch on the main topics covered in the written candidacy exam: classical mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics and quantum physics, optics, basic mathematical methods of physics, and the physical origin of everyday phenomena.
Instructor: Endres.

SS 201 abc.
Analytical Foundations of Social Science.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
This course covers the fundamentals of utility theory, game theory, and social choice theory. These basic theories are developed and illustrated with applications to electoral politics, market trading, bargaining, auctions, mechanism design and implementation, legislative and parliamentary voting and organization, public economics, industrial organization, and other topics in economics and political science. Open to Social Science graduate students only.
Instructors: Echenique, Saito, Pomatto.

BMB/Ch 202 abc.
Biochemistry Seminar Course.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
The course focuses on a seminar on selected topics from outside faculty on recent advances in biochemistry. Components for each faculty visit include participation in a recitation, a formal discussion section with visiting faculty, and attendance of the Biochemistry seminar. Biochemistry Seminars take place 1-2 times per month (usually 4pm on Thursdays).

ME 202 abc.
Engineering Two-Phase Flows.
9 units (3-0-6):
.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab, Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc, or equivalents.
Selected topics in engineering two-phase flows with emphasis on practical problems in modern hydro-systems. Fundamental fluid mechanics and heat, mass, and energy transport in multiphase flows. Liquid/vapor/gas (LVG) flows, nucleation, bubble dynamics, cavitating and boiling flows, models of LVG flows; instabilities, dynamics, and wave propagation; fluid/structure interactions. Discussion of two-phase flow problems in conventional, nuclear, and geothermal power plants, marine hydrofoils, and other hydraulic systems. Not offered 2021-22.

MedE 202.
Sensors in Medicine.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: none.
Sensors play a very important role in all aspect of modern life. This course is an essential introduction to a variety of physical, chemical and biological sensors that are used in medicine and healthcare. The fundamental recognition mechanisms, transduction principles and materials considerations for designing powerful sensing and biosensing devices will be covered. We will also discuss the development of emerging electronic-skin, wearable and soft electronics toward personalized health monitoring. Participants in the course will develop proposals for novel sensing technologies to address the current medical needs.
Instructor: Gao.

SS 202 abc.
Political Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Course will introduce the student to the central problemswh of political theory and analysis, beginning with the essential components of the democratic state and proceeding through a variety of empirical topics. These topics will include the analysis of electoral and legislative institutions, legislative agenda processes, voting behavior, comparative political economy, and cooperation and conflict in international politics. The student will be sensitized to the primary empirical problems of the discipline and trained in the most general applications of game theoretic reasoning to political science. Open to Social Science graduate students only.
Instructors: Hirsch, Katz, Lopez-Moctezuma.

BE/Bi/NB 203.
Introduction to Programming for the Biological Sciences Bootcamp.
6 units:
summer term.
Prerequisites: none.
This course provides an intensive, hands-on, pragmatic introduction to computer programming aimed at biologists and bioengineers. No previous programming experience is assumed. Python is the language of instruction. Students will learn basic concepts such as data types, control structures, string processing, functions, input/output, etc., while writing code applied to biological problems. At the end of the course, students will be able to perform simple simulations, write scripts to run software packages and parse output, and analyze and plot data. This class is offered as a week-long summer "boot camp" the week after Commencement, in which students spend all day working on the course. Students who do not have a strong need for the condensed boot camp schedule are encouraged to take BE/Bi 103 a instead. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Bois.

Ph 203.
Nuclear Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 or equivalent.
An introduction and overview of modern topics in nuclear physics, including models and structure of nucleons, nuclei and nuclear matter, the electroweak interaction of nuclei, and nuclear/neutrino astrophysics. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Filippone.

ACM/IDS 204.
Topics in Linear Algebra and Convexity.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CMS/ACM 107 or instructor's permission.
Topic varies by year. 2021-2022: Matrix Analysis. This class develops some foundational results about matrices that have wide application in computational mathematics, statistics, engineering, and related fields. Tools from analysis (real, complex, functional, convex) play a key role. Topics may include multilinear algebra, majorization and doubly stochastic matrices, variational principles for eigenvalues, eigenvalue localization regions, unitarily invariant norms, operator monotonicity and convexity, convexity of matrix functions, matrix means, matrix inequalities, perturbation theory, tensor products and linear matrix equations, Hadamard products, nonnegative matrices, positive and completely positive linear maps, positive-definite functions.
Instructor: Tropp.

Ae 204 ab.
Technical Fluid Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent.
External and internal flow problems encountered in engineering, for which only empirical methods exist. Turbulent shear flow, separation, transition, three-dimensional and nonsteady effects. Basis of engineering practice in the design of devices such as mixers, ejectors, diffusers, and control valves. Studies of flow-induced oscillations, wind effects on structures, vehicle aerodynamics. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 205 ab.
Advanced Space Project.
9 units (2-4-3):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ae105 abc.
This is an advanced course on the design and implementation of space projects and it is currently focused on the flight project Autonomous Assembly of a Reconfigurable Space Telescope (AAReST). The objective is to be ready for launch and operation in 2015. Each student will be responsible for a specific activity, chosen from the following: optimization of telescope system architecture; design, assembly and testing of telescope optics; telescope calibration procedure and algorithms for wavefront control; thermal analysis; boom design and deployment test methods; effects of spacecraft dynamics on telescope performance; environmental testing of telescope system. Each student will prepare a survey of the state of the art for the selected activity, and then develop a design/implementation plan, execute the plan and present the results in a final report. Not offered 2021-2022.

BE/Bi 205.
Deep Learning for Biological Data.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: BE/BI 103 a and BE/BI 103 b or equivalent; or instructor's permission. CMS/CS/CNS/EE/IDS 155 is strongly recommended but not required.
This course is a practical introduction to machine learning methods for biological data, focusing on three common data types in biology-images, sequences, and structures. This course will cover how to represent biological data in a manner amenable to machine learning approaches, survey tasks that can be solved with modern deep learning algorithms (e.g. image segmentation, object tracking, sequence classification, protein folding, etc.), explore architectures of deep learning models for each data type, and provide practical guidance for model development. Students will have the opportunity to apply these methods to their own datasets. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Dave Van Valen.

MedE 205.
New Frontiers in Medical Technologies.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: None but knowledge of semiconductor physics and some system engineering, basic electrical engineering highly recommended.
New Frontiers of Medical Technologies is an introductory graduate level course that describes space technologies, instruments, and engineering techniques with current and potential applications in medicine. These technologies have been originally and mainly developed for space exploration. Spinoff applications to medicine have been explored and proven with various degrees of success and maturity. This class introduces these topics, the basics of the technologies, their intended original space applications, and the medical applications. Topics include but are not limited to multimodal imaging, UV/Visible/NIR imaging, imaging spectrometry, sensors, robotics, and navigation. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Nikzad.

Ph 205 abc.
Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 125.
Topics: the Dirac equation, second quantization, quantum electrodynamics, scattering theory, Feynman diagrams, non-Abelian gauge theories, Higgs symmetry-breaking, the Weinberg-Salam model, and renormalization.
Instructors: Kapustin, Zurek, Wise.

SS 205 abc.
Foundations of Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
This is a graduate course in the fundamentals of economics. Topics include comparative statics and maximization techniques, the neo-classical theory of consumption and production, general equilibrium theory and welfare economics, public goods and externalities, the economic consequences of asymmetric information and incomplete markets, and recursive methods with applications to labor eco-nomics and financial economics. Open to Social Science graduate students only.
Instructors: Echenique, Tamuz, Pourbabaee.

ACM 206.
Topics in Computational Mathematics.
9 units (6-0-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM 106ab.
Covers modern numerical methods. Possible topics include randomized matrix computations, numerical optimization, Monte Carlo methods. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Tropp.

Bi 206.
Biochemical and Genetic Methods in Biological Research.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing.
This course will comprise discussions of selected methods in molecular biology and related fields. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Varshavsky.

Ae 208 abc.
GALCIT Colloquium.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
A seminar course in fluid, solid, space, and bio mechanics. Weekly lectures on current developments are presented by staff members, graduate students, and visiting scientists and engineers. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Austin/TBD.

SS 209.
Behavioral Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: SS 201 abc or instructor's permission.
This course explores how psychological facts and constructs can be used to inform models of limits on rationality, willpower and greed, to expand the scope of economic analysis. Topics include overconfidence, heuristics for statistical judgment, loss-aversion, hyperbolic discounting, optimal firm behavior when consumers are limited in rationality, behavioral game theory, behavioral finance, neuroeconomic dual-self models, and legal and welfare implications of rationality limits. Not offered 2021-2022.

ACM 210.
Numerical Methods for PDEs.
9 units (3-0-6):
third terms.
Prerequisites: ACM 11, 106 or instructor's permission.
Finite difference and finite volume methods for hyperbolic problems. Stability and error analysis of nonoscillatory numerical schemes: i) linear convection: Lax equivalence theorem, consistency, stability, convergence, truncation error, CFL condition, Fourier stability analysis, von Neumann condition, maximum principle, amplitude and phase errors, group velocity, modified equation analysis, Fourier and eigenvalue stability of systems, spectra and pseudospectra of nonnormal matrices, Kreiss matrix theorem, boundary condition analysis, group velocity and GKS normal mode analysis; ii) conservation laws: weak solutions, entropy conditions, Riemann problems, shocks, contacts, rarefactions, discrete conservation, Lax-Wendroff theorem, Godunov's method, Roe's linearization, TVD schemes, high-resolution schemes, flux and slope limiters, systems and multiple dimensions, characteristic boundary conditions; iii) adjoint equations: sensitivity analysis, boundary conditions, optimal shape design, error analysis. Interface problems, level set methods for multiphase flows, boundary integral methods, fast summation algorithms, stability issues. Spectral methods: Fourier spectral methods on infinite and periodic domains. Chebyshev spectral methods on finite domains. Spectral element methods and h-p refinement. Multiscale finite element methods for elliptic problems with multiscale coefficients Not offered 2021-2022.

SS 210 abc.
Foundations of Political Economy.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: SS 202c, SS 205b.
Mathematical theories of individual and social choice applied to problems of welfare economics and political decision making as well as to the construction of political economic processes consistent with stipulated ethical postulates, political platform formulation, the theory of political coalitions, and decision making in political organizations.
Instructors: Gibilisco, Hirsch.

Ay 211.
Contemporary Extragalactic Astronomy.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ay 123, Ay 124, and Ay 127.
Topics in extragalactic astronomy and cosmology, including observational probes of dark matter and dark energy; cosmological backgrounds and primordial element abundances; galaxy formation and evolution, including assembly histories, feedback and environmental effects; physics of the intergalactic medium; the role of active galactic nuclei; galactic structure and stellar populations; future facilities and their likely impact in the field. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 211.
Applied Geophysics II.
Units to be arranged:
first term.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Intensive geophysical field experience in either marine or continental settings. Marine option will include participation in a student training cruise, with several weeks aboard a geophysical research vessel, conducting geophysical measurements (multibeam bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, and/or seismics), and processing and interpreting the data. Supporting lectures and problem sets on the theoretical basis of the relevant geophysical techniques and the tectonic background of the survey area will occur before and during the training cruise. The course might be offered in a similar format in other isolated situations. The course will be scheduled only when opportunities arise and this usually means that only six months' notice can be given. Auditing not permitted. Class may be taken more than once. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Stock.

SS 211 abc.
Advanced Economic Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
May be repeated for credit. Advanced work in a specialized area of economic theory, with topics varying from year to year according to the interests of students.
Instructors: Echenique, Pomatto, Saito.

Ch 212.
Bioinorganic Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch 112 and Ch/Bi 110 or equivalent.
Current topics in bioinorganic chemistry will be discussed, including metal storage and regulation, metalloenzyme structure and reactions, biological electron transfer, metalloprotein design, and metal-nucleic acid interactions and reactions. Not offered 2021-22.

Ge 212.
Thermodynamics of Geological Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Either Ch 21 abc, Ge 115 a, or equivalents.
Chemical thermodynamics as applied to geological and geochemical problems. Classical thermodynamics, including stability criteria, homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria, equilibria subject to generalized constraints, equations of state, ideal and non-ideal solutions, redox systems, and electrolyte conventions. Brief discussion of statistical foundations and an introduction to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Asimow.

SS 212 abc.
Experimental Economics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, and third terms.
Prerequisites: SS 201abc, SS 202abc, SS 205 abc, SS 222 abc or with permission of the instructor.
This three-quarter sequence is designed for advanced Social Science Ph.D. students with the aim of introducing students to the methodology of modern experimental economics and to provide an in-depth overview of the contributions of experimental methods to a wide variety of fields. The specific topics covered, which will vary from year to year, include but are not limited to individual decision making, preference and belief elicitation, game theory, social learning, bargaining, labor economics, public finance, auctions, voting and elections, competitive markets, networks, matching, mechanism design, coordination/communication, and information aggregation. The focus will be on theory-based experiments and how the dialog between theoretical analysis and laboratory data feeds each other, thereby leading to new avenues of theoretical and experimental research.
Instructors: Sprenger, Nielsen, Agranov.

ACM/IDS 213.
Topics in Optimization.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM/IDS 104, CMS/ACM/IDS 113.
Material varies year-to-year. Example topics include discrete optimization, convex and computational algebraic geometry, numerical methods for large-scale optimization, and convex geometry.
Instructor: Qian.

Ae/AM/MS/ME 213.
Mechanics and Materials Aspects of Fracture.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc (concurrently) or equivalent and instructor's permission.
Analytical and experimental techniques in the study of fracture in metallic and nonmetallic solids. Mechanics of brittle and ductile fracture; connections between the continuum descriptions of fracture and micromechanisms. Discussion of elastic-plastic fracture analysis and fracture criteria. Special topics include fracture by cleavage, void growth, rate sensitivity, crack deflection and toughening mechanisms, as well as fracture of nontraditional materials. Fatigue crack growth and life prediction techniques will also be discussed. In addition, "dynamic" stress wave dominated, failure initiation growth and arrest phenomena will be covered. This will include traditional dynamic fracture considerations as well as discussions of failure by adiabatic shear localization. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 213 abc.
Advanced Ligand Field Theory.
12 units (1-0-11):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 21 abc or concurrent registration.
A tutorial course of problem solving in the more advanced aspects of ligand field theory. Recommended only for students interested in detailed theoretical work in the inorganic field.
Instructor: Gray.

SS 213 abc.
Financial Economics.
9 units (3-2-4):
first, second terms.
Mathematical finance: Pricing financial derivatives, risk management, and optimal portfolio selection. Methods of stochastic, Ito calculus for models driven by Brownian motion. Asset pricing theory: Mean-variance theory, information economics, continuous-time finance and differential equations, intertemporal consumption-based asset pricing theories, recent developments in intermediary-based and behavioral asset pricing theories. Behavioral finance: Empirical facts about asset prices, investor trading behavior, and firm behavior. Psychology about investor preferences and beliefs. Behavioral finance models that explain empirical facts. Trading strategies implemented by hedge funds. Prescriptive behavioral finance that aims at helping individuals and institutions to make better financial decisions.
Instructors: Cvitanic, Jin.

Ae/AM/CE/ME 214.
Computational Solid Mechanics.
9 units (3-5-1):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM 100 ab or equivalent; CE/AM/Ae 108 ab or equivalent or instructor's permission; Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc or instructor's permission.
This course focuses on the analysis of elastic thin shell structures in the large deformation regime. Problems of interest include softening behavior, bifurcations, loss of stability and localization. Introduction to the use of numerical methods in the solution of solid mechanics and multiscale mechanics problems. Variational principles. Finite element and isogeometric formulations for thin shells. Time integration, initial boundary value problems. Error estimation. Accuracy, stability and convergence. Iterative solution methods. Adaptive strategies.
Instructor: Pellegrino.

Bi 214.
Stem Cells and Hematopoiesis.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Graduate standing, or at least one of Bi 114, Bi 117, Bi/Be 182, plus molecular biology.
An advanced course with classes based on active discussion, lectures, and seminar presentations. Development from embryos and development from stem cells are distinct paradigms for understanding and manipulating the emergence of ordered biological complexity from simplicity. This course focuses on the distinguishing features of stem-cell based systems, ranging from the natural physiological stem cells that are responsible for life-long hematopoiesis in vertebrates (hematopoietic stem cells) to the artificial stem cells, ES and iPS cells, that have now been created for experimental manipulation. Key questions will be how the stem cells encode multipotency, how they can enter long-term self-renewal by separating themselves from the developmental clock that controls development of the rest of the organism, and how the self-renewal programs of different stem cell types can be dismantled again to allow differentiation. Does "stem-ness" have common elements in different systems? The course will also cover the lineage relationships among diverse differentiated cell types emerging from common stem cells, the role of cytokines and cytokine receptors in shaping differentiation output, apoptosis and lineage-specific proliferation, and how differentiation works at the level of gene regulation and regulatory networks.
Instructor: Rothenberg.

Ge 214.
Spectroscopy of Minerals.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 114 a, Ch 21 ab, or instructor's permission.
An overview of the interaction of minerals with electromagnetic radiation from gamma rays to microwaves. Particular emphasis is placed on visible, infrared, Raman, and MÃ¶ssbauer spectroscopies as applied to mineralogical problems such as phase identification, chemical analysis, site populations, and origin of color and pleochroism. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Rossman.

Ae/AM/ME 215.
Dynamic Behavior of Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM 100 abc or AM 125 abc; Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc.
Fundamentals of theory of wave propagation; plane waves, wave guides, dispersion relations; dynamic plasticity, adiabatic shear banding; dynamic fracture; shock waves, equation of state. Ravichandran.

Ay 215.
Seminar in Theoretical Astrophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Course for graduate students and seniors in astronomy. Topic for 2021-22 will be compact binaries containing white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Formation, mass transfer, accretion, X-ray and pulsar binaries, magnetic and wind interactions, mergers, gravitational waves. Students will be required to lead some discussions; homework will consist exclusively of reading and working through selected papers in preparation for discussions. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 215.
Topics in Advanced Petrology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ge 115 ab or instructor's permission.
Lectures, readings, seminars, and/or laboratory studies in igneous or metamorphic petrology, paragenesis, and petrogenesis. The course may cover experimental, computational, or analytical methods. Format and content are flexible according to the needs of the students. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Asimow.

ACM/IDS 216.
Markov Chains, Discrete Stochastic Processes and Applications.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM/EE/IDS 116 or equivalent.
Stable laws, Markov chains, classification of states, ergodicity, von Neumann ergodic theorem, mixing rate, stationary/equilibrium distributions and convergence of Markov chains, Markov chain Monte Carlo and its applications to scientific computing, Metropolis Hastings algorithm, coupling from the past, martingale theory and discrete time martingales, rare events, law of large deviations, Chernoff bounds.
Instructor: Owhadi.

NB/Bi/CNS 216.
Behavior of Mammals.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
A course of lectures, readings, and discussions focused on the genetic, physiological, and ecological bases of behavior in mammals. A basic knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is desirable. Given in alternate years. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Allman.

ACM 217.
Advanced Topics in Stochastic Analysis.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: ACM/CMS/EE/IDS 117.
The topic of this course changes from year to year and is expected to cover areas such as stochastic differential equations, stochastic control, statistical estimation and adaptive filtering, empirical processes and large deviation techniques, concentration inequalities and their applications. Examples of selected topics for stochastic differential equations include continuous time Brownian motion, Ito's calculus, Girsanov theorem, stopping times, and applications of these ideas to mathematical finance and stochastic control. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Tropp.

Ge 217.
Radiogenic Isotopes Seminar.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 140b or permission of instructor.
The course deals with advanced topics in radiogenic isotope geochemistry and builds on Ge 140b, addressing unconventional applications of radioisotopes as well as treating several conventional radiogenic systems in more detail. Topics to be covered will be guided by class interests. Given in alternate years. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Farley.

NB/Bi/CNS 217.
Central Mechanisms in Perception.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
Reading and discussions of behavioral and electrophysiological studies of the systems for the processing of sensory information in the brain. Given in alternate years. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Allman.

Ae/ME/APh 218.
Statistical Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ae/ME 118, or equivalent.
Overview of probability and statistics, and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Overview and elements of Quantum Mechanics, degenerate energy states, particles in a box, and energy-state phase space. Statistics of indistinguishable elementary particles, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, partition functions, connections with classical thermodynamics, and the Law of Equipartition. Examples from equilibrium in fluids, solid-state physics, and others. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ay 218.
Extrasolar Planets.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 218.
Stable Isotopes Seminar.
6 units (3-0-3):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ge 140 or permission of instructor.
The course deals with advanced topics in stable isotope geochemistry and builds on Ge 140. The course will explore in depth the theory and applications of a subject in stable isotope geochemistry, selected by consensus of the enrolled students at or before the beginning of term. Example subjects could include: stable isotope thermometry; paleoclimate studies; paleoaltimetry; the early solar system; terrestrial weathering; photochemistry; or biosynthetic fractionations. The class will read and discuss classic papers in that subject area, supplemented with instructor lectures and broader background reading. All participants will lead discussions of papers and present one lecture on a relevant subject. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Eiler.

SS 218.
Neuroscience Applications to Economics and Politics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Topics in behavioral, affective, and social neuroscience that inform how individuals make economic decisions. Applications of neuroscience ideas and methods to understanding choice under risk and uncertainty, temporal discounting and self-control, advertisement and preference formation, habit, addiction, and judgment bias.
Instructor: Camerer.

Ay 219.
Elements in the Universe and Galactic Chemical Evolution.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ay 121, 123, 124, 126.
Survey of the formation of the elements in the universe as a function of cosmic time. Review of the determination of abundances in stars, meteorites, H II regions, and in interstellar and intergalactic gas. Overview of models of galactic chemical evolution. Participants will measure elemental abundances from the Keck spectrum of a star and construct their own numerical chemical evolution models. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 219.
Non-traditional Isotopes Seminar.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 140a or b, or permission of instructor.
The course deals with advanced topics in stable and radiogenic isotope geo-/cosmochemistry and builds on Ge 140a and b, with emphasis on non-traditional isotope systems (Mg, Fe, Ti, Mo, U, etc.). Starting with close examination of seminal papers, each topic will build up to a discussion of the remaining outstanding questions. Topics to be covered will be guided by class interests. Example subjects could include: the early solar system, nucleosynthetic anomalies, the early Earth, planetary differentiation, paleoredox reconstructions, medical use of stable isotopes. All participants will lead discussions of papers and present a lecture on a relevant subject. Grades will include participation, a review/proposal paper, and oral examination(s).
Instructor: Tissot.

Ph/CS 219 abc.
Quantum Computation.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 125 ab or equivalent.
The theory of quantum information and quantum computation. Overview of classical information theory, compression of quantum information, transmission of quantum information through noisy channels, quantum error-correcting codes, quantum cryptography and teleportation. Overview of classical complexity theory, quantum complexity, efficient quantum algorithms, fault-tolerant quantum computation, physical implementations of quantum computation.
Instructors: Preskill, Kitaev.

Ae 220.
Theory of Structures.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc.
Fundamentals of buckling and stability, total potential energy and direct equilibrium approaches; classification of instabilities into snap-through and bifurcations; eigenvalues and eigenvectors of stiffness matrix; Rayleigh-Ritz estimates of buckling loads; buckling of columns; imperfection sensitivity; elastic-plastic buckling; buckling of plates and shells. Selected topics: localization and wrinkling; design of imperfection insensitive shells and other topics. Not offered 2021-2022.

NB/Bi/CNS 220.
Genetic Dissection of Neural Circuit Function.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or equivalent. Open to advanced (junior or senior) undergraduates only and with instructor permission.
This advanced course will discuss the emerging science of neural "circuit breaking" through the application of molecular genetic tools. These include optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations of neuronal activity, genetically based tracing of neuronal connectivity, and genetically based indicators of neuronal activity. Both viral and transgenic approaches will be covered, and examples will be drawn from both the invertebrate and vertebrate literature. Interested CNS or other graduate students who have little or no familiarity with molecular biology will be supplied with the necessary background information. Lectures and student presentations from the current literature.
Instructor: Anderson.

Ae/CE 221.
Space Structures.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
This course examines the links between form, geometric shape, and structural performance. It deals with different ways of breaking up a continuum, and how this affects global structural properties; structural concepts and preliminary design methods that are used in tension structures and deployable structures. Geometric foundations, polyhedra and tessellations, surfaces; space frames, examples of space frames, stiffness and structural efficiency of frames with different repeating units; sandwich plates; cable and membrane structures, form-finding, wrinkle-free pneumatic domes, balloons, tension-stabilized struts, tensegrity domes; deployable and adaptive structures, coiled rods and their applications, flexible shells, membranes, structural mechanisms, actuators, concepts for adaptive trusses and manipulators.
Instructor: Pellegrino.

Bi/BE/BMB 222.
The Structure of the Cytosol.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 9, Ch/Bi 110-111 or graduate standing in a biological discipline.
The cytosol, and fluid spaces within the nucleus, were once envisioned as a concentrated soup of proteins, RNA, and small molecules, all diffusing, mixing freely, and interacting randomly. We now know that proteins in the cytosol frequently undergo only restricted diffusion and become concentrated in specialized portions of the cytosol to carry out particular cellular functions. This course consists of lectures, reading, student presentations, and discussion about newly recognized biochemical mechanisms that confer local structure and reaction specificity within the cytosol, including protein scaffolds and "liquid-liquid phase separations" that form "membraneless compartments".
Instructor: Kennedy.

CE/Ge/ME 222.
Earthquake Source Processes, Debris Flows, and Soil Liquefaction: Physics-based Modeling of Failure in Granular Media.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
A seminar-style course focusing on granular dynamics and instabilities as they relate to geophysical hazards such as fault mechanics, debris flows, and liquefaction. The course will consist of student-led presentations of active research at Caltech and discussions of recent literature. Not offered 2021-22.

SS 222 abc.
Econometrics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Introduction to the use of multivariate and nonlinear methods in the social sciences. Open to Social Science graduate students only.
Instructors: Shum, Sherman, Sherman.

Ae/AM/ME 223.
Plasticity.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc or instructor's permission.
Theory of dislocations in crystalline media. Characteristics of dislocations and their influence on the mechanical behavior in various crystal structures. Application of dislocation theory to single and polycrystal plasticity. Theory of the inelastic behavior of materials with negligible time effects. Experimental background for metals and fundamental postulates for plastic stress-strain relations. Variational principles for incremental elastic-plastic problems, uniqueness. Upper and lower bound theorems of limit analysis and shakedown. Slip line theory and applications. Additional topics may include soils, creep and rate-sensitive effects in metals, the thermodynamics of plastic deformation, and experimental methods in plasticity. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ph/APh 223 ab.
Advanced Condensed-Matter Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 135 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Advanced topics in condensed-matter physics, with emphasis on the effects of interactions, symmetry, and topology in many-body systems. Ph/APh 223a covers second quantization, Hartree-Fock theory of the electron gas, Mott insulators and quantum magnetism, spin liquids, bosonization, and the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. Ph/APh 223b will continue with BCS theory of superconductivity, Ginzburg-Landau theory, elements of unconventional and topological superconductors, theory of superfluidity, Bose-Hubbard model and bosonic Mott insulators, and some aspects of quantum systems with randomness.
Instructor: Alicea.

SS 223 abc.
Topics in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: SS 222 abc; may be repeated for credit.
The courses in this sequence cover advanced methods and tools in econometrics, as well as their applications to a variety of topics in economics, including industrial organization, dynamic choice, information economics, political economy, market design, and behavioural economics.
Instructors: Shum, Xin.

ME/MS/Ae/AM 224.
Multifunctional Materials.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: MS 115 or equivalent, Ae/AM/CE/ME 102abc or APh105abc (may be waived with instructor's permission).
Multiscale view of materials and different approaches of introducing functionality; Electronic aspects and multiferroic materials; Symmetry breaking phase transformations, microstructure: shape-memory alloys, ferroelectrics, liquid crystal elastomers; Composite materials and metamaterials: multifunctional structures. Not offered 2021-2022.

SS 224.
Social Science Data.
9 units (3-3-3):
first term.
This course provides broad coverage of empirical methods in the social sciences. This includes both methods of data collection and practical aspects of data analysis, as well as related issues of survey design, experimental design, techniques for handling large datasets, and issues specific to the collection and analysis of field and historical data. This course also provides students with hands-on experience with data. Open to Social Science graduate students only.
Instructor: Alvarez.

Ae/AM/ME/Ge 225.
Special Topics in Solid Mechanics.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Subject matter changes depending on staff and student interest.

Ch 225.
Advanced Quantum Chemistry.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch125ab or equivalent, or permission of instructors.
The electronic structure of atoms and molecules, the interactions of radiation fields and matter, scattering theory, and reaction rate theory. Not offered 2021-2022.

SS 225.
Experimetrics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
This course explores the interaction of experimental design and econometric inference in the laboratory approach to economic questions. The course critically evaluates existing experimental studies to highlight this interaction and motivate consideration of inferential strategies early in an experiments design. Methodological topics may include testing theories in two-by-two designs, power and optimal design, classifying subjects into canonical types, testing based on elicited preferences and beliefs, and challenges introduced by communication and dynamics in economic experiments. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 226.
Optical and Nonlinear Spectroscopy.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ch125ab, or equivalent instruction in quantum mechanics.
Quantum mechanical foundations of optical spectroscopy as applied to chemical and material systems. Topics include optical properties of materials, nonlinear and quantum optics, and multidimensional spectroscopy.
Instructors: Blake, Cushing.

Bi/BE 227.
Methods in Modern Microscopy.
12 units (2-6-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: Bi/BE 177 or a course in microscopy.
Discussion and laboratory-based course covering the practical use of the confocal microscope, with special attention to the dynamic analysis of living cells and embryos. Course will begin with basic optics, microscope design, Koehler illumination, and the principles of confocal microscopy as well as other techniques for optical sectioning such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy (also called single plane illumination microscopy, SPIM). During the class students will construct a light sheet microscope based on the openSPIM design. Alongside the building of a light sheet microscope, the course will consist of semi-independent modules organized around different imaging challenges using confocal microscopes. Early modules will include a lab using lenses to build a cloaking device. Most of the early modules will focus on three-dimensional reconstruction of fixed cells and tissues. Later modules will include time-lapse confocal analysis of living cells and embryos. Students will also utilize the microscopes in the Beckman Institute Biological Imaging Facility to learn more advanced techniques such as spectral unmixing and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Enrollment is limited. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Collazo.

SS 228 abc.
Applied Empirical Methods in the Social Sciences.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, third terms.
Course covers methods used in contemporary applied empirical work in a variety of social sciences. Topics covered include (a) maximum likelihood, Bayesian estimation, management and computation of large datasets, (b) reduced form methods like instrumental variables (IV), difference-in-differences (DID), natural experiments, event study and panel data methods, and (c) structural estimation. Emphasis is on the application of tools to substantive social science problems rather than statistical theory, in areas including political science, political economy, corporate finance, and accounting. Application focus will vary with instructor interests.
Instructors: Katz, Ewens.

Ph 229 abc.
Advanced Mathematical Methods of Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 129 abc or equivalent.
Advanced topics in geometry and topology that are widely used in modern theoretical physics. Emphasis will be on understanding and applications more than on rigor and proofs. First term will cover basic concepts in topology and manifold theory. Second term will include Riemannian geometry, fiber bundles, characteristic classes, and index theorems. Third term will include anomalies in gauge-field theories and the theory of Riemann surfaces, with emphasis on applications to string theory. Part c will not be offered in 2021-2022.
Instructors: Ooguri, Kapustin.

SS 229 abc.
Theoretical and Quantitative Dimensions of Historical Development.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
May be repeated for credit. Introduction to modern quantitative history. The tools of economic and political theory applied to problems of economic, social, and political development in a historical context. Second and third terms will be graded together. A pass/fail will be assigned in the second term and then changed to the appropriate letter grade at the end of the third term.
Instructors: Hoffman, Rosenthal.

Bi/CNS/BE/NB 230.
Optogenetic and CLARITY Methods in Experimental Neuroscience.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: Graduate standing or NB/Bi/CNS 150 or equivalent or instructor's permission.
The class covers the theoretical and practical aspects of using (1) optogenetic sensors and actuators to visualize and modulate the activity of neuronal ensembles; and (2) CLARITY approaches for anatomical mapping and phenotyping using tissue-hydrogel hybrids. The class offers weekly hands-on LAB exposure for opsin viral production and delivery to neurons, recording of light-modulated activity, and tissue clearing, imaging, and 3D reconstruction of fluorescent samples. Lecture topics include: opsin design (including natural and artificial sources), delivery (genetic targeting, viral transduction), light activation requirements (power requirements, wavelength, fiberoptics), compatible readout modalities (electrophysiology, imaging); design and use of methods for tissue clearing (tissue stabilization by polymers/hydrogels and selective extractions, such as of lipids for increased tissue transparency and macromolecule access). Class will discuss applications of these methods to neuronal circuits (case studies based on recent literature). Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gradinaru.

BMB/Ch 230.
Macromolecular Structure Determination with Modern X-ray Crystallography Methods.
12 units (2-4-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.
Advanced course in macromolecular crystallography integrating lecture and laboratory treatment of diffraction theory, crystallization (proteins, nucleic acids and macromolecular complexes), crystal characterization, X-ray sources and optics, crystal freezing, X-ray diffraction data collection (in-house and synchrotron), data reduction, multiple isomorphous replacement, single- and multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing techniques, molecular replacement, electron density interpretation, structure refinement, structure validation, coordinate deposition and structure presentation. In the laboratory component, one or more proteins will be crystallized and the structure(s) determined by several methods, in parallel with lectures on the theory and discussions of the techniques
Instructor: Hoelz.

Ph 230 abc.
Elementary Particle Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 205 abc or equivalent.
First term: Standard model, including electroweak and strong interactions, symmetries and symmetry breaking (including the Higgs mechanism), parton model and quark confinement, anomalies. Second and third terms: more on nonperturbative phenomena, including chiral symmetry breaking, instantons, the 1/N expansion, lattice gauge theories, and topological solitons. Other topics include topological field theory, precision electroweak, flavor physics, conformal field theory and the AdS/CFT correspondence, supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, and Physics Beyond the Standard Model. Part c will not be offered in 2021-2022.
Instructors: Zurek, Gukov.

CDS 231.
Robust Control Theory.
9 units (3-2-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: CMS/ACM/IDS 107, CMS/ACM/IDS 113, and CDS 131 (or equivalents).
Linear input/output models (multi-state difference and differential equations). Stability, input/output norms. Uncertainty, including noise, disturbances, parametric uncertainty, unmodeled dynamics, and structured uncertainty (LTI/LTV). Tradeoffs, robustness versus efficiency, conservation laws and hard limits in time and frequency domain. Synthesis of robust control systems. Co-design of sparse and limited (delayed, quantized, saturating, noisy) sensing, communications, computing, and actuation. Layering, localization, and distributed control. Interplay between automation, optimization, control, modeling and system identification, and machine learning. Computational scalability exploiting sparsity and structure, nonlinear dynamics and sum of squares, global stability, regions of attraction. Motivation throughout from case studies from tech, neuro, bio, and socioeconomic networks, explored in more detail in CDS 141.
Instructor: Doyl.

SS 231 abc.
American and Comparative Politics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: SS 202 abc, or permission of the instructor.
An advanced graduate Social Science sequence in American and comparative politics. The sequence will focus on political institutions and behavior, introducing students to the important theories of American and comparative politics. Students will learn how historical, observational, and experimental data are used in American and comparative political analysis.
Instructors: Katz, Alvarez.

Ae/ACM/ME 232 ab.
Computational Fluid Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent; ACM 100 abc or equivalent.
Development and analysis of algorithms used in the solution of fluid mechanics problems. Numerical analysis of discretization schemes for partial differential equations including interpolation, integration, spatial discretization, systems of ordinary differential equations; stability, accuracy, aliasing, Gibbs and Runge phenomena, numerical dissipation and dispersion; boundary conditions. Survey of finite difference, finite element, finite volume and spectral approximations for the numerical solution of the incompressible and compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, including shock-capturing methods.
Instructors: Bae, Meiron.

CDS 232.
Nonlinear Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: CMS/ACM/ IDS107 and CDS 231.
This course studies nonlinear dynamical systems beginning from first principles. Topics include: existence and uniqueness properties of solutions to nonlinear ODEs, stability of nonlinear systems from the perspective of Lyapunov, and behavior unique to nonlinear systems; for example: stability of periodic orbits, PoincarÃ© maps and stability/invariance of sets. The dynamics of robotic systems will be used as a motivating example.
Instructor: Ames.

Ph 232.
Introduction to Topological Field Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ph 205.
Topological field theories are the simplest examples of quantum field theories which, in a sense, are exactly solvable and generally covariant. During the past twenty years they have been the main source of interaction between physics and mathematics. Thus, ideas from gauge theory led to the discovery of new topological invariants for 3-manifolds and 4-manifolds. By now, topological quantum field theory (TQFT) has evolved into a vast subject, and the main goal of this course is to give an accessible introduction to this elegant subject.
Instructor: Gukov.

Ae 233.
Hydrodynamic Stability.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent.
Laminar-stability theory as a guide to laminar-turbulent transition. Rayleigh equation, instability criteria, and response to small inviscid disturbances. Discussion of Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and other instabilities, for example, in geophysical flows. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation, the dual role of viscosity, and boundary-layer stability. Weakly nonlinear stability theory and phenomenological theories of turbulence. Not offered 2021-2022.

CDS 233.
Nonlinear Control.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: CDS 231 and CDS 232.
This course studies nonlinear control systems from Lyapunov perspective. Beginning with feedback linearization and the stabilization of feedback linearizable system, these concepts are related to control Lyapunov functions, and corresponding stabilization results in the context of optimization based controllers. Advanced topics that build upon these core results will be discussed including: stability of periodic orbits, controller synthesis through virtual constraints, safety-critical controllers, and the role of physical constraints and actuator limits. The control of robotic systems will be used as a motivating example.
Instructor: Ames.

Ae 234 ab.
Hypersonic Aerodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent, AM 125 abc, or instructor's permission.
An advanced course dealing with aerodynamic problems of flight at hyper-sonic speeds. Topics are selected from hypersonic small-disturbance theory, blunt-body theory, boundary layers and shock waves in real gases, heat and mass transfer, testing facilities and experiment. Not offered 2021-2022.

ME/CDS/EE 234 ab.
Advanced Robotics.
9 units (3-3-3):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME/CS/EE 133(a,b), or equivalent.
The first quarter focuses on advanced robot kinematics and mechanisms. Topics include a Lie Algebraic viewpoint on kinematics and robot dynamics, a review of robotic mechanisms, and topics in robotic grasping and manipulation. The second quarter focuses on advanced topics in robotic motion planning and navigation, including planning with POMDPs, robotic coverage planning, and multi-robot coordination. Course work will consist of homeworks, programming projects, and labs.
Instructor: Burdick.

Ae 235.
Rarefied Gasdynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Molecular description of matter; distribution functions; discrete-velocity gases. Kinetic theory: free-path theory, internal degrees of freedom. Boltzmann equation: BBGKY hierarchy and closure, H theorem, Euler equations, Chapman-Enskog procedure, free-molecule flows. Collisionless and transitional flows. Direct simulation Monte Carlo methods. Applications. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ph 235 ab.
Theoretical Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: General Relativity at the level of Ph 236a, and Quantum Field Theory at the level of Ph 205a.
Cosmology in an expanding universe, inflation, big bang nucleosynthesis, baryogenesis, neutrino and nuclear astrophysics. Second term: Cosmological perturbation theory and the cosmic microwave background, structure formation, theories of dark matter. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Zurek.

Ph 236 abc.
General Relativity.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: a mastery of special relativity at the level of Goldstein's Classical Mechanics, or of Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics.
A systematic exposition of Einstein's general theory of relativity and its applications to gravitational waves, black holes, relativistic stars, causal structure of space-time, cosmology and brane worlds. Offered in alternate years. Part c will not be offered in 2021-2022.
Instructors: Chatziioannou, Teukolsky.

Ae 237 ab.
Nonsteady Gasdynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Part a: dynamics of shock waves, expansion waves, and related discontinuities in gases. Adiabatic phase-transformation waves. Interaction of waves in one- and two-dimensional flows. Boundary layers and shock structure. Applications and shock tube techniques. Part b: shock and detonation waves in solids and liquids. Equations of state for hydrodynamic computations in solids, liquids, and explosive reaction products. CJ and ZND models of detonation in solids and liquids. Propagation of shock waves and initiation of reaction in explosives. Interactions of detonation waves with water and metals.
Instructors: Shepherd, Austin.

Ph 237.
Gravitational Radiation.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 106 b, Ph 12 b or equivalents.
Special topics in Gravitational-wave Detection. Physics of interferometers, limits of measurement, coherent quantum feedback, noise, data analysis. Chen.
Instructor: Y.

Ae 239 ab.
Turbulence.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc; AM 125 abc or ACM/IDS 101.
Reynolds-averaged equations and the problem of closure. Statistical description of turbulence. Homogeneous isotropic turbulence and structure of fine scales. Turbulent shear flows. Physical and spectral models. Subgridscale modeling. Turbulent mixing. Structure of low and high Reynolds number wall turbulence. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 240.
Special Topics in Fluid Mechanics.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Topics and subject matter descriptions change each year depending upon staff and student interest. Proposed topics for AY 21-22:
1. <b>First, second and third terms: Educational exchange at Ecole Polytechnique.</b> <i>Students participating in the Ecole Polytechnique educational exchange must register for 36 units while they are on detached duty at Ecole Poly-technique.</i> Instructor: Meiron.
2. <b>Second term: Topics in Thermodynamics.</b> <i>9 units (3-0-6); Prerequisites: Ae/ME118, or equivalent.</i> Advances discussions on and extends topics covered in Ae/ME118. Forms of work and heat. Formulations of equations of state, compressibility functions, and applications of the Law of Corresponding States. Thermodynamic potentials and their estimation, phase equilibrium and transitions, chemically reacting systems. Elements of Classical and Quantum Statistics, equipartition, thermal equilibrium of harmonic-oscillator and normal-mode systems, black-body spectrum and radiation. Heat capacity of gases, liquids, and solids. Applications and examples from fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, energy systems, and thermal sciences. Instructor: Dimotakis.
3. <b>Second term: Topics in Wind Energy.</b> <i>9 units (3-0-6)</i> <i>Topics in Wind Energy An introduction to the analysis and modeling of wind energy resources and their extraction.</i> Topics include the physical origins of atmospheric winds; vertical profiles of wind speed and turbulence over land and sea; the wind energy spectrum and its modification by natural topography and built environments; theoretical limits on wind energy extraction by wind turbines and wind farms; modeling of wind turbine aerodynamics and wind farm performance. Instructor: Dabiri.

BE 240.
Special Topics in Bioengineering.
Units and term to be arranged:
.
Topics relevant to the general educational goals of the bioengineering option. Graded pass/fail.

Ae 241.
Special Topics in Experimental Fluid and Solid Mechanics.
:
.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh 104 or equivalent or instructor's permission.
Units to be arranged; first, second, third terms. Subject matter changes depending upon staff and student interest.

Bi/BE/CNS/NB 241.
Spatial Genomics.
9 units (1-8-0):
third term.
Prerequisites: Instructor's permission.
Maximum enrollment: 12. Applications of spatial genomics technology to various biological samples. Projects will be selected to represent problems in neurobiology, developmental biology and translational medicine. Emphasis will be placed on generating experimental data and analysis of data with machine learning algorithms for segmentation and clustering cells with single cell genomics tools, and preparation for publication.
Instructor: Cai.

Ae/BE 242.
Biological Flows: Propulsion.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent or ChE 103 a.
Physical principles of unsteady fluid momentum transport: equations of motion, dimensional analysis, conservation laws. Unsteady vortex dynamics: vorticity generation and dynamics, vortex dipoles/rings, wake structure in unsteady flows. Life in moving fluids: unsteady drag, added-mass effects, virtual buoyancy, bounding and schooling, wake capture. Thrust generation by flapping, undulating, rowing, jetting. Low Reynolds number propulsion. Bioinspired design of propulsion devices.
Instructor: Dabiri.

CDS 242.
Hybrid Systems: Dynamics and Control.
9 units (3-2-4):
third term.
Prerequisites: CDS 231 and CDS 232.
This class studies hybrid dynamical systems: systems that display both discrete and continuous dynamics. This includes topics on dynamic properties unique to hybrid system: stability types, hybrid periodic orbits, Zeno equilibria and behavior. Additionally, the nonlinear control of these systems will be considered in the context of feedback linearization and control Lyapunov functions. Applications to mechanical systems undergoing impacts will be considered, with a special emphasis on bipedal robotic walking. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 242 ab.
Chemical Synthesis.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc.
An integrated approach to synthetic problem solving featuring an extensive review of modern synthetic reactions with concurrent development of strategies for synthesis design. Part a will focus on the application of modern methods of stereocontrol in the construction of stereochemically complex acyclic systems. Part b will focus on strategies and reactions for the synthesis of cyclic systems.
Instructors: Stoltz (a), Reisman (b).

Ph 242 ab.
Physics Seminar.
4 units (2-0-2):
first, second terms.
An introduction to independent research, including training in relevant professional skills and discussion of current Caltech research areas with Caltech faculty, postdocs, and students. One meeting per week plus student projects. Registration restricted to first-year graduate students in physics.
Instructor: Patterson.

CDS 243.
Adaptive Control.
4 units (2-0-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: CDS 231 AND CDS 232.
Specification and design of control systems that operate in the presence of uncertainties and unforeseen events. Robust and optimal linear control methods, including LQR, LQG and LTR control. Design and analysis of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems with extensions to output feedback. Offered in alternate years. Not offered 2021-2022.

MedE/BE/Ae 243.
Physiological Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent or ChE 103 a.
Internal flows: steady and pulsatile blood flow in compliant vessels, internal flows in organisms. Fluid dynamics of the human circulatory system: heart, veins, and arteries (microcirculation). Mass and momentum transport across membranes and endothelial layers. Fluid mechanics of the respiratory system. Renal circulation and circulatory system. Biological pumps. Low and High Reynolds number locomotion.
Instructor: TBD.

CDS 244.
System Identification.
4 units (2-0-2):
third term.
Prerequisites: CDS 231 and CDS 232.
Mathematical treatment of system identification methods for dynamical systems, with applications. Nonlinear dynamics and models for parameter identification. Gradient and least-squares estimators and variants. System identification with adaptive predictors and state observers. Parameter estimation in the presence of non-parametric uncertainties. Introduction to adaptive control. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge/Bi 244.
Paleobiology Seminar.
6 units (3-0-3):
third term.
Critical reviews and discussion of classic investigations and current research in paleoecology, evolution, and biogeochemistry.
Instructor: Kirschvink.

Ge/Bi/ESE 246.
Molecular Geobiology Seminar.
6 units (2-0-4):
first term.
Critical reviews and discussion of classic papers and current research in microbiology and geomicrobiology. As the topics will vary from year to year, it may be taken multiple times. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Orphan.

Ch 247.
Organic Reaction Mechanisms.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ch 41 abc, Ch 242 a recommended.
This course will discuss and uncover useful strategies and tactics for approaching complex reaction mechanisms prevalent in organic reactions. Topics include: cycloaddition chemistry, rearrangements, radical reactions, metal-catalyzed processes, photochemical reactions among others. Recommended only for students interested in advanced study in organic chemistry or related fields. Not offered 2021-22.

CNS/Bi/NB 247.
Cerebral Cortex.
6 units (2-0-4):
second term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or equivalent.
A general survey of the structure and function of the cerebral cortex. Topics include cortical anatomy, functional localization, and newer computational approaches to understanding cortical processing operations. Motor cortex, sensory cortex (visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex), association cortex, and limbic cortex. Emphasis is on using animal models to understand human cortical function and includes correlations between animal studies and human neuropsychological and functional imaging literature. Given in alternate years. Not Offered 2021-22.
Instructor: Andersen.

Ge/ESE/Bi 248.
Environmental Justice.
6 units (2-0-4):
second term.
This seminar course will explore and discuss the unique intersection of environmental racism, environmental justice, and academia. Course material will primarily feature readings and videos on a case study-like basis and focus on bringing conversations typically had in humanities, social sciences and activism to the bio and geosciences. Topics will center around two primary approaches: an "outward-facing" component that looks at environmental racism through the lens of various activisms, and an "inward-facing" component addressing the biases/malpractices broadly employed in the biological and geosciences, as well as the apparent moral dilemmas of decisions involving multiple stakeholders. Out of class work will largely be based on assigned readings, some multimedia presentations, and occasional writings and thought exercises. This course is taught concurrently with Hum 61 and can only be taken once, as Ge/ESE/Bi 248 or Hum 61.
Instructor: Orphan.

Ae 250.
Reading and Independent Study.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Graded pass/fail only.

APh 250.
Advanced Topics in Applied Physics.
Units and term to be arranged:
.
Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course.
Instructor: Staff.

Bi 250 a.
Topics in Molecular and Cellular Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing.
Lectures and literature-based discussions covering research methods, scientific concepts and logic, research strategies and general principles of modern biology. Students will learn to critique papers in a wide range of fields, including molecular biology, developmental biology, genetics and neuroscience. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors: Aravin, Voorhees.

Bi 250 b.
Topics in Systems Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Bi 1, Bi 8, or equivalent; Ma 2, Bi/CNS/NB 195, or equivalent; or instructor's permission.
Quantitative studies of cellular and developmental systems in biology, including the architecture of specific circuits controlling microbial behaviors and multicellular development in model organisms. Specific topics include chemotaxis, multistability and differentiation, biological oscillations, stochastic effects in circuit operation, as well as higher-level circuit properties, such as robustness. The course will also consider the organization of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks at the genomic scale. Topics are approached from experimental, theoretical, and computational perspectives.
Instructors: Elowitz, Bois.

Bi 250 d.
Topics in Developmental, Stem Cell and Evolutionary Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing.
Lectures and literature-based discussions on the principles and experimental frontiers of embryonic axis organization, pattern formation, genomic mechanisms of cell type specification, stem cell biology, and evolutionary change.
Instructors: Bronner, Rothenberg, Zernicka-Goetz.

Ch 250.
Advanced Topics in Chemistry.
3 units:
third term.
Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course. In Spring 2020 the class will be a seminar course in pharmaceutical chemistry with lectures by industrial researchers from both discovery (medicinal chemistry) and development (process chemistry) departments. Not offered 2021-2022.

NB/Bi/CNS 250 c.
Topics in Systems Neuroscience.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: graduate standing.
The class focuses on quantitative studies of problems in systems neuroscience. Students will study classical work such as Hodgkin and Huxley's landmark papers on the ionic basis of the action potential, and will move from the study of interacting currents within neurons to the study of systems of interacting neurons. Topics will include lateral inhibition, mechanisms of motion tuning, local learning rules and their consequences for network structure and dynamics, oscillatory dynamics and synchronization across brain circuits, and formation and computational properties of topographic neural maps. The course will combine lectures and discussions, in which students and faculty will examine papers on systems neuroscience, usually combining experimental and theoretical/modeling components.
Instructor: Siapas.

Ph 250.
Introduction to String Theory.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Ph 205 or equivalent.
This year, we offer a lighter version of the course. It will cover a condensed version of the world-sheet formulation, then basic elements of the target space physics, after which we will discuss interesting phenomena/applications, such as T-duality, D-branes, anomalies, building semi-realistic models of particle physics from string compactifications, etc. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Gukov.

Ae/CDS/ME 251 ab.
Closed Loop Flow Control.
9 units (3-0-6 a, 1-6-1 b):
second, third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 100abc, Ae/APh/CE/ME 101abc or equivalent.
This course seeks to introduce students to recent developments in theoretical and practical aspects of applying control to flow phenomena and fluid systems. Lecture topics in the second term drawn from: the objectives of flow control; a review of relevant concepts from classical and modern control theory; high-fidelity and reduced-order modeling; principles and design of actuators and sensors. Third term: laboratory work in open- and closed-loop control of boundary layers, turbulence, aerodynamic forces, bluff body drag, combustion oscillations and flow-acoustic oscillations. Not offered 2021-2022.

Bi/BMB 251 abc.
Current Research in Cellular and Molecular Biology.
1 unit:
.
Prerequisites: graduate standing.
Presentations and discussion of research at Caltech in biology and chemistry. Discussions of responsible conduct of research are included. Bi/BMB 251a will not be offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Sternberg, Hay.

Ch 251.
Advanced Topics in Chemical Biology.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: Ch 145 or 146 or consent of the instructor.
Advanced Topics in Chemical Biology. Hours and units to be arranged. Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Not offered 2021-2022.

CNS 251.
Human Brain Mapping: Theory and Practice.
9 units (2-1-6):
second term.
A course in functional brain imaging. An overview of contemporary brain imaging techniques, usefulness of brain imaging compared to other techniques available to the modern neuroscientist. Review of what is known about the physical and biological bases of the signals being measured. Design and implementation of a brain imaging experiment and analysis of data (with a particular emphasis on fMRI).
Instructor: O'Doherty.

AM/CE/ME 252.
Linear and Nonlinear Waves in Structured Media.
9 units (2-1-6):
third term.
The course will cover the basic principles of wave propagation in solid media. It will discuss the fundamental principles used to describe linear and nonlinear wave propagation in continuum and discrete media. Selected recent scientific advancements in the dynamics of periodic media will also be discussed. Students learn the basic principles governing the propagation of waves in discrete and continuum solid media. These methods can be used to engineer materials with predefined properties and to design dynamical systems for a variety of engineering applications (e.g., vibration mitigation, impact absorption and sound insulation). The course will include an experimental component, to test wave phenomena in structured media.
Instructor: Daraio.

Bi 252.
Responsible Conduct of Research.
4 units (2-0-2):
first term.
This lecture and discussion course covers relevant aspects of the responsible conduct of biomedical and biological research. Topics include guidelines and regulations, ethical and moral issues, research misconduct, data management and analysis, research with animal or human subjects, publication, conflicts of interest, mentoring, and professional advancement. Undergraduate students with junior and senior standing may enroll. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors: Meyerowitz, Sternberg, Staff.

Ch 252.
Advanced Topics in Chemical Physics.
Hours and units to be arranged:
.
Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Not offered 2021-22.

Ch/Bi 253.
Advanced Topics in Biochemistry.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
Hours and units to be arranged. Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Not offered 2021-2022.

Psy/Bi/CNS 255.
Topics in Emotion and Social Cognition.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: NB/Bi/CNS 150 or instructor's permission.
Emotions are at the forefront of most human endeavors. Emotions aid us in decision-making (gut feelings), help us remember, torment us, yet have ultimately helped us to survive. Over the past few decades, we have begun to characterize the neural systems that extend from primitive affective response such as fight or flight to the complex emotions experienced by humans including guilt, envy, empathy and social pain. This course will begin with an in-depth examination of the neurobiological systems that underlie negative and positive emotions and move onto weekly discussions, based on assigned journal articles that highlight both rudimentary and complex emotions. The final weeks will be devoted to exploring how the neurobiological systems are disrupted in affective disorders including anxiety, aggression and psychopathy. In addition to these discussions and readings, each student will be required to write a review paper or produce a short movie on a topic related to one of the emotions discussed in these seminars and its underlying neural mechanisms.
Instructor: Mobbs.

ACM 256.
Special Topics in Applied Mathematics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ACM/IDS 101 or equivalent.
Introduction to finite element methods. Development of the most commonly used method-continuous, piecewise-linear finite elements on triangles for scalar elliptic partial differential equations; practical (a posteriori) error estimation techniques and adaptive improvement; formulation of finite element methods, with a few concrete examples of important equations that are not adequately treated by continuous, piecewise-linear finite elements, together with choices of finite elements that are appropriate for those problems. Homogenization and optimal design. Topics covered include periodic homogenization, G- and H-convergence, Gamma-convergence, G-closure problems, bounds on effective properties, and optimal composites. Not offered 2021-2022.

APh/MS 256.
Computational Solid State Physics and Materials Science.
9 units (3-3-3):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph125 or equivalent and APh114ab or equivalent.
The course will cover first-principles computational methods to study electronic structure, lattice vibrations, optical properties, and charge and heat transport in materials. Topics include: Theory and practice of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the total-energy pseudopotential method. DFT calculations of total energy, structure, defects, charge density, bandstructures, density of states, ferroelectricity and magnetism. Lattice vibrations using the finite-difference supercell and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) methods. Electron-electron interactions, screening, and the GW method. GW bandstructure calculations. Optical properties, excitons, and the GW-Bethe Salpeter equation method. Ab initio Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for electrons and phonons. Computations of heat and charge transport within the BTE framework. If time permits, selected advanced topics will be covered, including methods to treat vander Waals bonds, spin-orbit coupling, correlated materials, and quantum dynamics. Several laboratories will give students direct experience with running first-principles calculations. Not offered 2021-2022.

CNS/Bi/NB 256.
Decision Making.
6 units (2-0-4):
third term.
This special topics course will examine the neural mechanisms of reward, decision making, and reward-based learning. The course covers the anatomy and physiology of reward and action systems. Special emphasis will be placed on the representation of reward expectation; the interplay between reward, motivation, and attention; and the selection of actions. Links between concepts in economics and the neural mechanisms of decision making will be explored. Data from animal and human studies collected using behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance techniques will be reviewed. Given in alternate years. Offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Andersen.

ACM 257.
Special Topics in Financial Mathematics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 or instructor's permission.
A basic knowledge of probability and statistics as well as transform methods for solving PDEs is assumed. This course develops some of the techniques of stochastic calculus and applies them to the theory of financial asset modeling. The mathematical concepts/tools developed will include introductions to random walks, Brownian motion, quadratic variation, and Ito-calculus. Connections to PDEs will be made by Feynman-Kac theorems. Concepts of risk-neutral pricing and martingale representation are introduced in the pricing of options. Topics covered will be selected from standard options, exotic options, American derivative securities, term-structure models, and jump processes. Not offered 2021-2022.

ME/MS 260.
Micromechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 or equivalent, and Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc or Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab or instructor's permission.
The course gives a broad overview of micromechanics, emphasizing the microstructure of materials, its connection to molecular structure, and its consequences on macroscopic properties. Topics include phase transformations in crystalline solids, including martensitic, ferroelectric, and diffusional phase transformations, twinning and domain patterns, active materials; effective properties of composites and polycrystals, linear and nonlinear homogenization; defects, including dislocations, surface steps, and domain walls; thin films, asymptotic methods, morphological instabilities, self-organization; selected applications to microactuation, thin-film processing, composite materials, mechanical properties, and materials design. Open to undergraduates with instructor's permission. Not offered 2021-22.

SS 260.
Experimental Methods of Political Economy.
9 units (3-3-3):
first, second, third terms.
Survey of laboratory experimental research related to the broad field of political economy. Topics: the behavior of markets, organizations, committee processes, and election processes. Emphasis on experimental methods and techniques. Students will design and conduct experiments. May be repeated for credit with instructor's permission.
Instructor: Plott.

Ge 261.
Advanced Seismology.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Continuation of Ge 162 with special emphasis on particular complex problems; includes generalizations of analytical methods to handle nonplanar structures and methods of interfacing numerical-analytical codes in two and three dimensions; construction of Earth models using tomographic methods and synthetics. Requires a class project.
Instructor: Zhan.

BE 262.
Physical Biology Bootcamp.
12 units (2-10-0):
summer term.
Prerequisites: Enrollment limited to incoming Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Bioengineering, and Neurobiology graduate students, or instructor's permission.
This course provides an intensive introduction to thinking like a quantitative biologist. Every student will build a microscope from scratch, use a confocal microscope to measure transcription in living fly embryos and perform a quantitative dissection of gene expression in bacteria. Students will then use Python to write computer code to analyze the results of all of these experiments. No previous experience in coding is presumed, though for those with previous coding experience, advanced projects will be available. In addition to the experimental thrusts, students will use "street fighting mathematics" to perform order of magnitude estimates on problems ranging from how many photons it takes to make a cyanobacterium to the forces that can be applied by cytoskeletal filaments. These modeling efforts will be complemented by the development of physical models of phenomena such as gene expression, phase separation in nuclei, and cytoskeletal polymerization. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Phillips.

Ge 263.
Computational Geophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: introductory class in geophysics, class in partial differential equations, some programming experience.
Finite-difference, pseudo-spectral, finite-element, and spectral-element methods will be presented and applied to a number of geophysical problems including heat flow, deformation, and wave propagation. Students will program simple versions of methods. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructors: Clayton, Gurnis.

Ge 264.
Machine Learning in Geophysics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ge 118 or equivalent.
An overview of machine learning algorithms and their usage in current geophysical research. Both supervised and unsupervised learning will be covered. Algorithms include deep neural networks, ensemble learning, clustering, and dimensionality reduction. The course will address data requirements, current limitations, and the role of machine learning in the future of geophysics.
Instructor: Ross.

Ae/AM/CE/ME/Ge 265 ab.
Static and Dynamic Failure of Brittle Solids and Interfaces, from the Micro to the Mega.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc (concurrently) or equivalent and/or instructor's permission.
Linear elastic fracture mechanics of homogeneous brittle solids (e.g. geo-materials, ceramics, metallic glasses); small scale yielding concepts; experimental methods in fracture, fracture of bi-material interfaces with applications to composites as well as bonded and layered engineering and geological structures; thin-film and micro-electronic components and systems; dynamic fracture mechanics of homogeneous engineering materials; dynamic shear dominated failure of coherent and incoherent interfaces at all length scales; dynamic rupture of frictional interfaces with application to earthquake source mechanics; allowable rupture speeds regimes and connections to earthquake seismology and the generation of Tsunamis. Not offered 2021-2022.

ME/Ge/Ae 266 ab.
Dynamic Fracture and Frictional Faulting.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc or Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab or instructor's permission.
Introduction to elastodynamics and waves in solids. Dynamic fracture theory, energy concepts, cohesive zone models. Friction laws, nucleation of frictional instabilities, dynamic rupture of frictional interfaces. Radiation from moving cracks. Thermal effects during dynamic fracture and faulting. Crack branching and faulting along nonplanar interfaces. Related dynamic phenomena, such as adiabatic shear localization. Applications to engineering phenomena and physics and mechanics of earthquakes.
Instructor: Lapusta.

BE 267.
Research Topics in Bioengineering.
1 unit:
first term.
Prerequisites: Graduate Standing.
Introduction to current research topics in Caltech bioengineering labs. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

MedE/EE 268.
Medical Imaging.
9 units (4-0-5):
third term.
Medical imaging technologies will be covered. Topics include X-ray radiography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), nuclear imaging (PET & SPECT), ultrasonic imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Instructor: Wang.

ACM 270.
Advanced Topics in Applied and Computational Mathematics.
Hours and units by arrangement:
second, third terms.
Advanced topics in applied and computational mathematics that will vary according to student and instructor interest. May be repeated for credit.

Bi 270 abc.
Special Topics in Biology.
Units to be arranged each term:
first, second, third terms.
Students may register with permission of the responsible faculty member.

CDS 270.
Advanced Topics in Systems and Control.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Topics dependent on class interests and instructor. May be repeated for credit.

CMS 270.
Advanced Topics in Computing and Mathematical Sciences.
Units by arrangement:
second term.
Advanced topics that will vary according to student and instructor interest. May be repeated for credit.
Instructor: Staff.

Ge 270.
Continental Tectonics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 or ACM 113; Ge 11 ab, Ge 106, Ge 162, or Ge 161.
The nature of nonplate, finite deformation processes in the evolution of the continental lithosphere, using the Alpine orogen as an example. Rheological stratification; isostatic and flexural response to near-vertical loads; rifting and associated basin development; collision and strike-slip tectonics; deep crustal processes. Given in alternate years; not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Wernicke.

Ge 271.
Dynamics of Seismicity.
9 units (3-0-6):
second term.
A comprehensive introduction to seismicity of the Earth. Topics covered: Empirical laws for seismicity; spatial and temporal evolution of earthquake sequences; earthquake location algorithms; seismicity in crustal fault zones, subduction zones, creeping faults, volcanoes, and intraplate regions; earthquake triggering; induced seismicity; tectonic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes. Requires a class project.
Instructor: Ross.

CS 274 abc.
Topics in Computer Graphics.
9 units (3-3-3):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Each term will focus on some topic in computer graphics, such as geometric modeling, rendering, animation, human-computer interaction, or mathematical foundations. The topics will vary from year to year. May be repeated for credit with instructor's permission. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ge 277.
Active Tectonics Seminar.
6 units (2-0-4):
second term.
Discussion of key issues in active tectonics based on a review of the literature. The topic of the seminar is adjusted every year based on students' interest and recent literature. Given in alternate years; offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Avouac.

BMB 278.
Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Principles and mechanisms of DNA repair and replication, transcription and splicing, and protein synthesis. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ch 279.
Rotations in Chemistry.
Variable units as arranged with the advising faculty member:
first, second, third terms.
By arrangement with members of the faculty, properly qualified graduate students will have the opportunity to engage in a short-term research project culminating in a presentation to their peers enrolled in the course and participating laboratories. (Pass-Fail only).

Ch 280.
Chemical Research.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
By arrangement with members of the faculty, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research in chemistry.

ChE 280.
Chemical Engineering Research.
:
.
Offered to Ph.D. candidates in chemical engineering. Main lines of research now in progress are covered in detail in section two.

CNS 280.
Research in Computation and Neural Systems.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
For graduate students admitted to candidacy in computation and neural systems.

CS 280.
Research in Computer Science.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Approval of student's research adviser and option adviser must be obtained before registering.

SS 281.
Graduate Social Science Writing Seminar.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Only open to advanced graduate students in social science. How can social scientists write in a style that makes someone actually want to read their papers? This seminar combines writing exercises with help in planning a professional social science paper and with extensive comments on drafts.
Instructor: Rosenthal.

CS 282 abc.
Reading in Computer Science.
6 units or more by arrangement:
first, second, third terms.
Instructor's permission required.

SS 282 abc.
Graduate Proseminar in Social Science.
3 units (1.5-0-1.5):
first, second, third terms.
Course for graduate students in social sciences. Students present their research and lead discussion of material relevant to their research program. Open to Social Science Graduate Students only.
Instructors: Lopez-Moctezuma, Gibilisco, Staff.

Psy 283 abc.
Graduate Proseminar in Social and Decision Neuroscience.
3 units (1.5-0-1.5):
first, second, and third terms.
The course involves student presentations of their research, reading and discussion of recent research in social and decision neuroscience, and development of professional skill such as scientific writing and speaking, research ethics, writing grants and peer review. This course is only open to graduate students in the Social and Decision Neuroscience, Computational and Neural Systems and Social Science PhD programs.
Instructors: O'Doherty, Rangel, O'Doherty.

SS/Psy/CNS 285.
Topics in Social, Cognitive, and Decision Sciences.
3 units (1.5-0-1.5):
first, second terms.
The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to current research questions in cognitive sciences, political science, and economics. Select faculty will present their research background, methods, and a sampling of current studies. Background readings and pdf of presentation will be provided.
Instructors: Mobbs, Pomatto.

CNS/Bi 286 abc.
Special Topics in Computation and Neural Systems.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Students may register with permission of the responsible faculty member.

CS 286 abc.
Seminar in Computer Science.
3, 6, or 9 units, at the instructor's discretion:
.
Instructor's permission required.

CS 287.
Center for the Mathematics of Information Seminar.
3, 6, or 9 units, at the instructor's discretion:
first, second, third terms.
Instructor's permission required.
Instructor: Staff.

CMS 290 abc.
Computing and Mathematical Sciences Colloquium.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Registration is limited to graduate students in the CMS department only.
This course is a research seminar course covering topics at the intersection of mathematics, computation, and their applications. Students are asked to attend one seminar per week (from any seminar series on campus) on topics related to computing and mathematical sciences. This course is a requirement for first-year PhD students in the CMS department.
Instructor: Hou.

Ma 290.
Reading.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Occasionally, advanced work is given through a reading course under the direction of an instructor.

EE 291.
Advanced Work in Electrical Engineering.
Units to be arranged:
.
Special problems relating to electrical engineering. Primarily for graduate students; students should consult with their advisers.

MedE 291.
Research in Medical Engineering.
Units to be arranged, first, second, third terms:
.
Qualified graduate students are advised in medical engineering research, with the arrangement of MedE staff. Graded pass/fail.

Ge/ESE 298.
Mentoring and Outreach.
Units to be arranged, up to 12 units per year:
.
In consultation with a faculty advisor and the Caltech Center for Teaching, Learning, and Outreach, students may obtain credit for engaging in volunteer efforts to promote public understanding of science; to mentor and tutor young people and underserved populations; or to otherwise contribute to the diversity, equity, and inclusiveness of the scientific enterprise. Students may petition their option representative (graduate students) or academic advisor (undergraduate students) if they seek credits beyond the 12-unit limit.
Instructor: Staff.

Bi 299.
Graduate Research.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Students may register for research units after consultation with their adviser.

BMB 299.
Graduate Research.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Students may register for research units after consultation with their adviser.

NB 299.
Graduate Research.
Units to be arranged:
first, second, third terms.
Students may register for research units after consultation with their adviser.

SS 299.
Writing.
6 units (3-0-3):
summer term.
This course is designed for students to improve their ability for written expression in the English language. This course is only open to graduate students in the Social Decision Neuroscience and Social Science Ph.D. programs.
Instructor: Staff.

ACM 300.
Research in Applied and Computational Mathematics.
Units by arrangement:
.

AM 300.
Research in Applied Mechanics.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Research in the field of applied mechanics. By arrangement with members of the staff, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research.

APh 300.
Thesis Research in Applied Physics.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
APh 300 is elected in place of APh 200 when the student has progressed to the point where his or her research leads directly toward a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Approval of the student's research supervisor and department adviser or registration representative must be obtained before registering. Graded pass/fail.

CDS 300 abc.
Research in Control and Dynamical Systems.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Research in the field of control and dynamical systems. By arrangement with members of the staff, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research.
Instructor: Faculty.

CE 300.
Research in Civil Engineering.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Research in the field of civil engineering. By arrangements with members of the staff, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research.

CMS 300.
Research in Computing and Mathematical Sciences.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Research in the field of computing and mathematical science. By arrangement with members of the staff, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research.
Instructor: Staff.

ESE 300.
Thesis Research.
Units by arrangement:
any term.
Thesis research for graduate students after passing the qualifying exam. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Staff.

ME 300.
Research in Mechanical Engineering.
Hours and units by arrangement:
.
Research in the field of mechanical engineering. By arrangement with members of the faculty, properly qualified graduate students are directed in research.

MS 300.
Thesis Research.
:
.

Ph 300.
Thesis Research.
Units in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Ph 300 is elected in place of Ph 172 when the student has progressed to the point where research leads directly toward the thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Approval of the student's research supervisor and department adviser or registration representative must be obtained before registering. Graded pass/fail.

SS 300.
Research in Social Science.
Units to be arranged:
.

Ma 390.
Research.
Units by arrangement:
.

### Please Note

The online version of the Caltech Catalog is provided as a convenience; however, the printed version is the only authoritative source of information about course offerings, option requirements, graduation requirements, and other important topics.